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TL;DR Every Gun's Meta Role + Some Modding

Sections: Every Gun's Meta Role, why every other gun is bad, modding and ak-74 recoil reduction/price graph, ammo meta.
Lowest Recoil for 545, 556, and 7.62x39 guns :

[Ctrl + F to find stuff]

There seems to be some misunderstandings about objective facts about tarkov. Anecdotal experiences you’ve had do not change how the mechanics behave. Not penning lets say, a 6B47 with M61, doesn’t mean m61 won’t pen a 6B47. We know the pen chance of M61 on any given piece of armor, and just because you received an unlikely result does not mean it’s the only result. Similarly rephrasing otherwise damning statements doesn’t change the objective situation. Saying something such as “___ gun shreds armor with ___ ammo” is just a different way of saying “If I take the time to shoot the armor to the point of it no longer behaving as its armor class, then my bullets will go through it”. And I’ll concede you can indeed do that. But shooting an armor several times before your bullets go through doesn’t mean its equivalent to using bullets that go through the armor in the first place.
There also seems to be a misunderstanding on what makes a gun good. Most guns will kill someone if you correctly aim and left click on someone’s face. That’s the bare minimum for a gun to be useable in tarkov. Just because you have used a gun which can do that doesn’t make it good. If one can simply shoot someone in the face with the first bullet, they fire then what’s the point of bringing something other than a Makarov. We bring in better guns to make up for other short comings. Yes, if you shoot someone’s gen 4 6 times with 7.62x39 BP you will go through it. But that guy in the gen 4 can only has to shoot you twice because he brought competitive ammo. Don’t handicap yourself then say I’m spreading misinformation because if you just pretend a handicap isn’t there then then game is different from what I’m saying… also ap slugs suck.


Every Gun's Meta Role

Guns with a purpose:
AK-74 / AK-74N: Only has a place in 2 scenarios. Long range medium kit and any range high kit. In high kit the gun will cost 100k but will have the lowest recoil of the automatic ARs. BS and PP isn’t as expensive as 995 and M856A1. For high kit the 74 is 2nd best if money is no problem but if you do even remotely care about money then this is the most reasonable high kit gun. If lvl 6 armor for some reason becomes abundant in the future then this will be the best gun because igolnik. Yes m61 will go through lvl 6 but the FAL nerf means it has too much recoil for mid range and the m1a is semi auto which kinda nips the whole “2 stk > 3 stk” in the bud.
HK-416: 2nd lowest AR recoil. A maxed one of these is cheaper than a maxed m4 but has ~8 more vert reocil.
M4A1: Well my reference m4 did a mega-morphin stat change. The best recoil AR in the game. A maxed M4 is very very expensive and using it suppressed borks the recoil.
Bolt actions: All of the bolt actions are currently just very very bad vepr hunters. However quests are a thing and there’s very clearly one vastly superior bolt action and it issssss a sniper mosin with the non-blue tape obrez stock and the 514mm barrel. Its accurate and its very light. Recoil doesn’t matter, ergo kinda matters but not nearly as much as weight. If you don't like the PU scope then you can use the “arbalet patriot K+W mount” and just use any sight you want without the rendering issues of the tri-rail. Only in tarkov will the objectively cheapest gun in a class be the best. Cough ak-74 cough.
Vepr Hunter: M80 strong so gun strong. It one taps to the chest, is accurate, has no rof cap, can go through lvl 4, the 10 round mags are 1 slot, and you can get it for like 25-35k off the market. Its just stupid good. Is it better than a m1a, rsass or FAL? No. Is it way better than the mosin, saiga-12, mp-153, mr-133, m870, ash-12, sv-98, m-700, DVL, and SVD? Yeah.
MP-7: Best CQC gun for medium kit (anti-lvl 3) because FMJ is very cheap, the bitcoin trade lets you get 40k MP7s, and the recoil is lower than any gun of equivalent price. The only exceptions are the VSS and p-90 which you can use for about the same price (given you can get a 50k p-90 and a 40k VSS) However the VSS mags are either stupid expensive or too small and the p-90 has too much horizontal recoil. Yes the p-90 has less vertical recoil but only your mom is wider than she is tall and she’s not a scav boss yet.
PP-19: One of the three “competitive” budget guns. It's cheap, has maxed ak-74 levels of recoil(with a recoil pad), is automatic, and has no pen whatsoever. Face shots or go home.
Saiga-12: Best “shot” shotgun and one of three “competitive” budget guns. There’s a rof cap now but its vepr 136 levels so for a gun with a 20 round mag max, its not “too much” of a problem. If you’re running factory then maybe flechette could work but holy shit with the lack of limb pen and the 19 damage per dart (152 damage if all land) you’ll be shooting the fuck out of people before they die. I think the best example of how this feels was a raid where I killed one scav and it took 29 hits to kill that one unarmored scav. Honestly just use magnum and go for face shots. 1 pellet to the face can kill so it just a matter of spamming in the general upper torso direction and hoping RNG gives you a head/face shot. That sounds really stupid but throwing those dice is surprisingly dependable.
Vepr-136: One of the three “competitive” budget guns. If you need range and don’t mind giving up recoil and an automatic switch for armor pen then this is your jam. Grab one of these for 15k off the market, slap a butt-pad, m1b, and dynacomp on it, grab a handful of 30s with T45 for the cost of a slightly worn t-shirt, and you’re good to go. The only thing that really holds this gun back is the oversampling cap. I click at ~450 clicks per min and I slam right into that cap and get ~100-150 rpm out of it. Its really awful. That paired with the RoF link to FPS and you can imagine why taking this into cqc could be a bad idea.
AKMS / AKMSN: Only good for budget builds. Because the ammo is cheap you can spend more money on attachments. But the amount of money you would spend on attachments is so much, you might as well buy a better gun. I wouldn’t bother modding beyond a recoil pad, dynacomp, and M1B and pretending its a vepr-136 that can go full auto for CQC.
ADAR: Crazy good right now. 15k for a rec battery gets you a gun that reloads like lighting, who’s accurate, who’s ammo punches through lvl 4 for 191 rubles a pop with good recoil out of the box and has no rof cap (aside from the FPS limiting it of course).
FAL / M1A: Since the FAL was nerfed and the M80 wont go through full condition lvl 5, these don’t have a role in high kit. In medium kit however these are a nice alternative to the ak-74 or vepr hunter. They cost about 40-50k because of trades and they have access to large cheap mags. If you have a M1A then its fine as is, just put on a side mount. If you have an FAL put on a baskak and an extreme duty dust cover(if you did the NIXX trade then dont forget to rebuy the austrian muzzle break).
Makarov: One of two reasonably accurate pistols in game. If you’re going to carry a pistol as backup, carry this for face taps.
Saiga-9: Instead of doing pistol runs, do saiga-9 runs. No one will steal it, you can get it for the same price, you got 30s, and the recoil is only 47-195. For context a Makarov is 510-325 (and yes, that's five hundred and ten vertical recoil)
Kedr / Klin: probably my 2nd most used gun behind the 153 and…. Its pretty good for a 10-15k gun. Its cheap, it shoots cheap ammo, it has 1 slot 20 rounders, it has weird recoil / point of impact , and it sucks. If you wanna to pistol runs, do kedr runs instead.


Bad Guns (for the price / in comparison to other guns)

AKS-74U: Literally, the only reason to ever use this gun is because its funny or because you want a gun that’s very cheap, functionally accurate, automatic, and has cheap 30 round mags. If you consider using something other than FMJ in it then you would better spend your money buying an AKS-74 or AK-74M for 5k extra(or sometimes the same price). The only reasonable plays you can make are face shot barrel stuffs or tippy taps at range. Even automatic fire at like 15m has so much horizontal recoil that its basically useless. And if you spend the money to get the recoil down you might as well just buy a better gun and get low recoil that way. The only time the 74U can be remotely competitive is using it as a head tap DMR but even then you could use any other AK or adar for about the same price.
AKS-74 / AKS-74N / AK-74M/ AK-105 : These are basically just an AK-74 but slightly worse and occasionally cheaper. Just sell it or lightly mod it and use PP. If you dont have the money for PP then just use a PP-19.
AKM / AKMN: Its the best 7.62x39 gun in game and its just bad. It costs too much, the good ammo costs too much and doesn’t have enough pen for the price, and it has unacceptable recoil. There’s no reason to ever use this unless you can’t stand high recoil and must use a fully modded akm for that shoreline scav kill quest.
AK-103/AK-104: Imagine an AKM that’s worse and costs slightly less. Just dont.
AK-101 / AK-102: These are just meme / rp guns. They’re a better option than the AKM / AK-103 / AK-104 but that’s not saying much. They’re just expensive and have too much recoil. If you cannot stand the semi-auto of the adar these might be the only reasonable non-7.62x51 automatic for anti-lvl 4 because M855A1 is so dirt cheap.
SKS: A bad vepr-136 with the exception of having a higher RoF cap. Mags are stupid expensive, mags take forever to reload, and the recoil is stupid high. If you’re a sperg and can’t wrap your head around mags then do the filter trade, put a DTK-1 on an adapter, fill your pockets with T45 and you’re all ready to feed that sks to the next pmc you meet.
SVD: Its a bad M1A. Its too expensive, the mags cost too much, and it has a rof cap. No reason to use it other than the quest. Honestly, I’d take a vepr hunter over it because at least then I can spam in CQC.
MDR: So you can grab these for 40-50k on the market and after an RK-2 and Bulletec you’ll have the recoil of a maxed AKM with like 45 more horizontal recoil. So 80k for an extra shakey AKM in 556. So basically its useless, juse an ak-74.
TX-15: expensive adar with very slightly better recoil. If you care that much about recoil then just build an HK-416A5
MP-153: The only good slug shotgun and it sucks. People like it because you dont have to fiddle fuck with mags but the rof cap + the giga-longness + the slow reloads means CQC is is awful. Which means its only place in the meta is slugs and then its just a bad vepr hunter. But not like a “90% of the way there” bad, its a “30% of the way there” bad. I’ve probably used a 153 with slugs more than any other weapon in tarkov over these 7 or so wipes I’ve played and the whole time I’ve held the opinion that fucking christ the 153 with slugs sucks but lord is it fun. But with the CMS kits and the mosin and the vepr hunter. The allure of being a little shitling scuttling about has lost its charm. Breaking people’s arms and legs at range isn’t a raid ruiner, the mosin can do 1 shot chest taps now, and so can the vepr hunter. Its just not a vile bog of misery anymore. It’s just an underperforming gun that has been power creeped out of any relevance.
MP-133: bad mp-153. it literally don't even have iron sights
M870: mp-133 but expensive
Toz: is toz
Grach: imagine a saiga-9 but expensive and people can steal it easier
P226R: Imagine a grach but for people who wanna play dress up.
Glock 17: Imagine a P226R but for people who really really wanna play dress up.
Glock 18: Was pretty oppressive back when RIP could 3 shot your legs but now its just a DPS meme like it is in real life.
Shrimp: imagine a 5-7 but cheap and with no 1 tap chest hollow points. This is probably your best bet for the pistol kill quest.
5-7: imagine a shrimp but expensive and with hollow points that can 1 tap a chest. “But can’t all 9mm pistols do that?” ….yes but they’re half the price of RIP.
P-90: surprisingly similar in budget to the mp-7 but with less vertical recoil but more horizontal recoil and 50s instead of 30s…. So basically the p90 sucks.
MPX / MP5: mil-sim scum. In all seriousness they just cost so much for being such limp guns. I know people are SUPER FUCKING HYPED FOR AP 6.3 !?!??! but its just PMM with less damage. It wont ever got through a lvl 3 armor for christ sake.
TT: a makarov but it costs more and can go through lvl 2.
M9A3: sounds cool
APS: russian g18 that can’t use 9mm RIP. sucks
APB: Didn’t get nerfed with the APS so its a giga-cheap suppressed gun. But it handles like a shitty kedr and the kedr already handles like shit so keep that in mind.
RSASS: inflated price because of the quest, prob will never be viable until it gets a better mag or the M1A gets a recoil nerf.
VSS: imagine a AS VAL but you dont get that AR skill recoil reduction…. But its cheap. Its actually stupid cheap when you consider how much recoil it has and that SP-5 is basically 5.45 PP. You can get an AK-74 with a PBS-4 for 40k, and you can get an VSS for 40k, but you cannot get a suppressed AK-74 with VSS recoil for 40k, or 100k. The only thing holding the VSS back is the drop on it is stupid. I could go on a long hot ramble on how it could be fixed and how the way tarkov handles balistics calculations is dumb but that would take way too long. Basically only use it with sights that can zero to 25m and you’ll be fine unless you try to shoot at something beyond 50m.
AS-VAL: a slightly better VSS (because AR skill) but it costs 50-100% more
MP5K: bad kedr
Kedr-B: suppressed kedr that costs 25-30k
RPK: The recoil stats are basically the same as the AK-74 but maxed they both cost the same and the AK-74 gets recoil reduction from the AR skill so there’s just no reason to bother. The RPK is heavier, shoots at the same RPM, will have more ingame recoil, and sounds dumb.
Vepr-209: bad
Ash-12: unbelievably bad. Maybe if it was 20k from a trader and the ammo / mags were cheaper it might have a place in the meta. But that role would be a shitty vepr hunter that’s cheap.

PB: 25k silenced makarov…. Yeah naw
PM (t): fireball machine



I’m only going to cover the guns with a meta purpose that I didn’t mention how to mod in the above section.
M4A1 Max: (if I dont mention a part, its stock)
Pistol Grip: Ergo PSG-1 (only for ergo)
Stock: HK E1 (or BUS if you dont care about ergo)
Buffer Tube: Advanced (red has more accuracy)
Muzzle Break : Bulletek ST-6012 or AAC Blackout and SDN-6 (same recoil)
Backup sightst: Magpul MBUS Gen 2 (only for ergo)
Handguard: SAI QD Rail(long) + Jail Break
Foregrip: RK-2
Charging Handle: Raptor (only for ergo)
Barrel: 370mm
Upper: MUR
If you really care about min maxing you can put a cobra red dot on for an extra -1% recoil
HK 416A5 Max: (if I dont mention a part, its stock)
Pistol Grip: Ergo PSG-1 (only for ergo)
Stock: HK E1 (or BUS if you dont care about ergo)
Muzzle Break : Bulletek ST-6012 or AAC Blackout and SDN-6 (same recoil)
Backup sightst: Magpul MBUS Gen 2 (only for ergo)
Handguard: MRS 14" keymod
Foregrip: RK-2
Charging Handle: Raptor (only for ergo)
Barrel: 20”
If you really care about min maxing you can put a cobra red dot on for an extra -1% recoil
AK-74 Max (AKM is the same except for the lantac muzzle break)
Pistol Grip: US Palm (rk-3 weighs more)
Stock: Zhukov-S
Muzzle Break : CQB or PBS-4 to be suppressed (is 7% worse)
Dust Cover: Fab Defence PDC (highest ergo dust cover rail)
Handguard: CMRD
Foregrip: RK-2
Charging Handle: Extended (only for ergo)
The sweet spot is about the Zhukov-S + CQB + RK-0 + poly 100 has 58-153 recoil (which is about a maxed ak-105 but for 57k)
I used to determine the data points by an increasing budget but now I do it by the price / recoil gain of each next part. So buying a polymer stock costs more / recoil than the zhukov so I just skipped it. Also why I skipped to just using the RK-0.


Ammo Meta:
Damage thresholds: 35 (1 tap to the head), 40 (2 tap the chest), 60 (break arms in 1 shot), and 80 (1 tap chest).
What we can derive from this is Magnum buckshot can kill with one pellet to the head. Igolnik won’t 2 tap. T45 will break arms in 1 shot so you can flinch people. M80, LPS, and 7N1 will 1 tap to the chest.
You should really derive your own conclusions about the ammo, this is just what I use.
anti-Lvl 3:
T45 for 7.62x39 for 70 rubles (PS isn’t a tracer but ps costs more and won't 1 shot arms)
PP for 5.45x39 for 152 rubles
M855A1 for 5.56 for 191 rubles(yes this is an anti-lvl 4 ammo, but m856a1 costs more than this)
SP-5 for 9x39 for 142 rubles
FMJ for 4.6 for 134 rubles
SS190 for 5.7 for 147 rubles
M80 for 7.62x39 for 237 rubles (also goes through lvl 4, there’s just no lower tier ammo)
LPS for 7.62x54R for 189 rubles (I just use 7n1 tbh)
Anti-lvl 4
M855A1 for 5.56 for 191 rubles
M80 for 7.62x51 for 237 rubles
7n1 for 7.62x54R for 322 rubles
Sp6, 7.62x39 BP, and AP SX cost too much to be considered for such an irrelevant threshold. Though its more relevant than previous patches due to the abundance of lvl 4. Though they’re usually pretty damaged.
Anti-lvl 5
5.45x39 BS for 554 rubles
The meta is just 5.45 BS or pay out the ass for sub-par return on investment.
5.56 995 for 800 rubles
9x39 BP is trade only, usually 1,000 rubles on the market
Not sure how much m61 costs yet, not worth it regardless and m62 is the same story.
submitted by JonseyMcDanes to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

Some news you may have missed out on part 49.

-Public servants must give up foreign nationalities or job, rules SC
The Supreme Court on Saturday directed the authorities concerned to set a deadline for dual nationality holders to either rescind their foreign nationalities or resign from their job immediately. Headed by Chief Justice Mian Saqib Nisar, a three-judge bench of the apex court announced its judgement in a case pertaining to public servants holding dual nationalities.
It directed the authorities to develop criteria and standard operating procedures (SOPs) requiring disclosure of intent to seek such foreign nationalities and permanent residence permits and adopt methods to check such instances and enforce penalties for no-disclosure.
-Pakistan has been elected as the Vice President and the Rapporteur of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations convention on climate change
Pakistan has been elected as the Vice President and the Rapporteur of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, at COP 24 in Katowice, Poland. Pakistan was one of the two countries elected to the position from Asia-Pacific Group, by acclamation on December 15, a Foreign Office statement said. The other bodies in which Pakistan secured seats included the Executive Board of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Standing Committee on Finance (SCF), Adaptation Committee (AC), Consultative Group of Experts (CGE), and Technology Executive Committee (TEC).
-First ever ATM installed in North Waziristan
-COAS confirms death sentence to 15 hardcore terrorists
Chief of Army Staff (COAS) General Qamar Javed Bajwa on Sunday confirmed the death sentence awarded to 15 hardcore terrorists involved in heinous offences related to terrorism.
The terrorists who were tried and awarded capital punishments by special military courts were involved in attacks on the armed forces, law enforcement agencies, abetting suicide bombers in an attack on Christian Colony near Peshawar, destruction of educational institutions and killing of innocent civilians, according to the Inter-Service Public Relations (ISPR).
-Government to help in every possible way for PIA’s revival: minister
Federal Minister for Privatization Muhammad Mian Soomro has said that the PTI- led federal government will provide all possible help for the revival of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), ARY News reported on Sunday. The federal minister visited PIA Headquarters and met CEO of PIA, Air Marshal Arshad Malik to get briefing about the current position of the organization.
“Government will help in every possible way for PIA’s revival,” adding it [PIA] is moving in positive direction now. Mr Soomro said government is committed to transform PIA into profitable organization as it was in the past.
-Gas supply resumed to CNG sector
Federal Minister for Petroleum Ghulam Sarwar Khan on Saturday announced that the supply of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was estored in Karachi and Sindh at around 8PM. ddressing media in Karachi alongside Governor Sindh Imran Ismail, the petroleum minister said that the days long crisis will be over as the supply was restored to CNG sector at 8PM.
-“Japanese firms to invest in Pakistan’s steel, baby formula milk industries”
Adviser to Prime Minister on Commerce, Textile and Industries Abdul Razak Dawood said that officials from major Japanese firms are scheduled to visit Pakistan next month for making investments in country’s steel and baby formula milk industries. Speaking at a press conference, Dawood informed that last month Japanese companies assured to invest in Pakistan during the bilateral trade talks in Japan. He said a delegation of Japanese companies, manufacturing steel and baby formula milk, will be visiting Pakistan after January 15. Moreover, the Japanese government also promised to allocate skill development and technology development funds for small industries in Pakistan, the PM adviser said.
-Aleem Khan vows initiate large-scale development projects in Punjab
Punjab Senior Minister Abdul Aleem Khan on Sunday vowed to initiate large-scale development projects across the province on emergency basis. Talking to journalists at Punjab secretariat, Aleem Khan said the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf government will soon devise policy to regularize the slums in the province. He said that provision of potable water to every locality is government’s responsibility and added that their party will fulfill all the promises made with the masses. The minister also listen public complaints on the occasion and said that the government will not make any compromise on public issues. He said that 908 complaints have been registered so far at the public secretariat and added that out of 815 complaints had been addressed.
-CPEC to increase Pakistan GDP growth by 3%
Muhammad Saleem Acting High Commissioner (HC) of Pakistan while speaking at Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) conference arranged by Carleton University said through CPEC Pakistan will become an energy secure country and its GDP growth will increase by 2-3pc. He said early harvest energy and infrastructure projects, created 40,000 local jobs and the new projects will usher into an era of development and prosperity.
Speaking on the occasion, Chinese Ambassador to Canada, Mr. Lu Shaye said that BRI is not a geo-political tool but it is a new approach to international development and prosperity and it aims to advance economic and trade coordination among regional countries. A large number of academics, diplomats, media persons, businessmen and students attended the conference.
-Yet another mini budget on cards from PTI government
Yet another mini budget is on cards from the PTI government in a bid to bridge the gap of the increasing revenue shortfall. Federal government is considering major revenue measures including raising the GST rate on POL products, slapping tax on the telecom companies, reversing the tax relief for salaried class by 50 percent and increasing the tax rate on cigarettes by reviewing the existing third tier taxation system. The jacking up of additional custom duty by 1 percent is also among the proposals floated by the FBR to achieve the revenue targets. The Federal Minister for Finance Asad Umar is currently visiting abroad so after his return the government could take final decision on finalising additional revenue measures to bridge the yawning revenue shortfall within the next couple of weeks.
-In a historical move, Smart Cards replace old registration books in Punjab
Punjab government starts issueing smart cards as replacement of vehicle registration books from tomorrow to facilitate the citizens. According to sources at Punjab Excise Department , all arrangements for the new registration system have been finalized. The source said the machines procured for the smart cards can prepare nearly twenty-two thousand cards daily.
-PM Imran Khan issues stern instructions to FIA, crackdown on cards across country in next 24 hours
Prime Minister Imran Khan on Sunday has issued stern instructions to the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA). FIA has been ordered to keep its offices 24 hours open in Karachi while teams were formed for action against bitcoin and sell of illegal cards of foreign tv channels. Earlier on November 30, Prime Minister Imran Khan had directed the concerned authorities to finalize a new legislation to effectively deal with the offences related to money laundering.
-Russia expresses desire to enhance trilateral partnership with Pakistan, China
Alexey Y Dedov, the ambassador of the Russian Federation in Pakistan, hailed the move of the South Asain giant to open the Kartarpur Corridor for Sikh pilgrims in India. According to details, the envoy, speaking at Pakistan Institute of International Affairs on the topic of “Russia’s Stabilising Role in South Asia”, stated that Pakistan’s decision of opening Kartarpur border shows the country’s commitment towards peace and stability in the region. He further appreciated Pakistan’s military crackdown against militants present inside its border under the operations of Radd-ul-Fasaad and Zarb-e-Azb.
-Canadian diplomats laud Pakistan as attractive tourist destination
A ten-member delegation of Canadian Embassy Islamabad Saturday visited the archaeological sites in Takhtbhai and evinced keen interest in the historical remains of Gandhara civilization. The members of the delegation in their comments on the occasion held Pakistan an attractive tourist country. Pakistan is a peaceful country and its people are peace loving and hospitable, they added.
-Pakistan Railways announces to launch VIP trains across Pakistan
Pakistan Railways minister stressed that steps are being taken to improve the standard of Pakistan Railways and to provide maximum relief to the people. “New passenger and freight trains will be inaugurated soon including a new train between Lahore and Rawalpindi,” he announced. Sheikh Rashid invited the private sectors to contribute in the development of railways, adding that VIP trains will be launched soon with the collaboration of private partners.
-Pakistan emerging as favourite tourist destination for French and European tourists
Pakistan is emerging as favourite and preferred tourists destination for French and European tourists, it has been revealed. More and more French and European tourists are opting for Pakistan as a ‘preferred destination’ for tourism purpose, Radio Pakistan reported.
According to details, the representatives of the top tour operators of France called on Ambassador of Pakistan to France Moin ul Haque in the French capital for a debriefing session. The representatives of French tour company recently visited Pakistan in September on a two-week long trip. They prepared their separate presentations to brief the Pakistani ambassador about their journey which gave them first-hand experience of tourism potential of Pakistan.
-Russia to support Pakistan in economic challenges: Ambassador hints at renewed pledge
Ambassador of Russia , Mr. Alexey Dedov has expressed Russian desire to enhance economic ties with Pakistan. The Ambassador of Russia remained with the Governor Sindh for sometime and discussed matters pertaining to mutual interests particularly on partnership in economy, trade and finance. The Ambassador said that Russia welcomes the determination of Pakistani Government to promptly respond to economic challenges of the Country and energy crisis.
-For the first time in history, Pakistan and Hollywood to come up with an interesting joint venture
Paksiatni directors and Hollywood filmmakers are collaborating for the very first time in history. The acclaimed filmmakers from the East and the West are working together on a supernatural thriller titled Djinn. A new production house ‘Wingman Films’ is going to mark an entry with this multicultural concept venture.
Pakistani producer Ali Murtaza, who is also working on "The Legend of Maula Jatt" these days, shared the details of upcoming venture Djinn saying that the movie will be based on a 17-year-old hero from Pakistan’s northern areas who will be struggling to recover ‘lost stones’ and keep the world from being taken over by djinns. Due to this reason, the show will be featuring episodes from the US and China in its first season.
-PM may set up poverty alleviation unit at his office
Prime Minister Imran Khan may set up a poverty alleviation unit at his office, to be headed by a special assistant, for implementing a new broad-based strategy to pull millions of people out of poverty. About 16 government and semi-government organisations will liaison with the office of special assistant on poverty alleviation and social protection, said sources in the PM Office.
-Govt finalises 5-year tariff policy
Adviser to Prime Minister on Commerce, Textile and Industries Abdul Razak Dawood has announced that the government has finalised a five-year national tariff policy aimed at restricting duties on raw material and machinery imports for export-based industries. “We are making efforts to rationalise certain taxes and regulatory and customs duties,” he said. “At present, there exists roughly 34 different taxes and the government is planning to reduce them to 12 or eight in the next couple of years.” It would assist the leadership to remove a key impediment in the way of ease of doing business, the adviser emphasised, adding that he was well aware of the challenges faced by the business community regarding tax slabs and tariff lines.
-Number of taxes to be reduced from 34 to eight for ease of doing business: Razzak Dawood
The business community is suffering a lot in shape of multiple tax slabs and tariff lines. The government is working to rationalize taxes, regulatory and customs duties, Adviser to the Prime Minister on Commerce Abdul Razzak Dawood said while addressing the ‘Emerging Pakistan’ ceremony organized by the Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce and Industry (RCCI). There are around 34 different taxes and the government is planning to shrink to 12 or eight in next couple of years, he said, adding that this would help in meeting the challenge of one core impediment in ease of doing business. He said that the government had finalized the five-year national tariff policy to bring down tariffs on raw material and machinery imports for export-based industries.
-Services exports jump 14.28pc, trade deficit falls 49pc in October
The services exports from Pakistan surged by 14.28 per cent to $470 million in October, as compared to the exports during the same month of the previous year.
The trade deficit of services also fell sharply by 49.05 per cent during the month as it decreased to $195 million against the trade deficit of $382 million in the same month of previous year, according to latest data of Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS). The imports of services declined by 16.25 per cent to $665 million in the corresponding month as compared to import of $794.02 million in October 2017. Meanwhile, the trade deficit of services during first four months of current fiscal year (2018-19) also shrank by 33.75 per cent as exports increased by 2.13 per cent and imports fell by 15.47 per cent during the period, as compared to the period from July-October of 2017-18.
-Govt to promote Pakistan-made furniture at international markets
Advisor to Prime Minister on Commerce, Textile and Industrial Production and Investment, Abdul Razak Dawood, Sunday said that the government was taking all possible measures to promote Pakistan-made products at local and international markets and special incentive packages would be given to strengthening manufacturing in furniture sector to boost the exports. The advisor was speaking at the prize distribution ceremony at the concluding day of 3-day “Interiors Pakistan” international exhibition at Expo Center, organised by Pakistan Furniture Council (PFC). Dawood also appreciated PFC Chief Executive Mian Kashif Ashfaq for holding a successful exhibition and said PFC deserved appreciation for promoting the culture of local brands to strengthen the national economy.
-Economic revival, industrial boost top agenda of govt: Usman
Prime Minister’s Special Assistant on Youth Affairs Usman Dar Sunday said that economic revival and boosting industries were the top agenda of the present government and all-out efforts were being made in that regard. In a meeting of surgical instruments’ manufactures and exporters in Sialkot, Dar said that PTI government was taking the business community and other stakeholders on-board for economic progress and development. Punjab Minister for Special Education Ch Muhammad Ikhlaq, SIMAP Chairman Khalilur Rehman Mughal and Muhammad Jehangir Bajwa were also present.
-Govt Likely to Allow More Than One Duty Free Phones for Overseas Pakistanis
After facing strong criticism, as well as concerns from the overseas Pakistanis on new mobile import policy, the government is considering revising the policy and may allow at least two duty free phones.
-SBP Orders Installation of CCTV Cameras at Exchange Companies to Curb Money Laundering
The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) is planning to tighten the monitoring of exchange companies through CCTV cameras in order to curb money laundering and terror financing in the country. The central bank said that the directives regarding the monitoring of exchange companies are mandatory for continuing their business in Pakistan.
-PIA takes multiple initiatives to come out of huge losses
Air Marshal Arshad Malik apprised the Aviation Minister about the current management initiatives such as reopening of routes, new destinations being planned to increase the airline’s network, improvement in food service, scheduling, and cost savings.
-Pakistan Economic indicators start to take 'u turn' towards positive trajectory: Report
Various stats and figures.
-Punjab's first Vehicle Registration Card or Digital Vehicle Smart Cards by the Excise and Taxation Department being Printed on site
-Pak China Steel Mill inaugurated at Port Qasim
A joint venture of Pak-China, Jianbang Group of China and a well-established of Pakistan has installed a first ever pig iron plant at Port Qasim Karachi, which is now inaugurated. The plant is now operational, as per the information the inauguration of this mill has been done on December 2018, there was big presentation of media at the event. The inauguration is done by the Chairman of Jianbang Group, Mr Wu Xianonian, whereas the partner of Pak China Steel, Mr. Lee Feelix as well as the directors Mr. Jam Asif and director Mr. Mustafa Dawood and Head of Marketing Mr. Sheharyar Khan hosted the event, Production capacity of the plant is 8000 tons per month total, at the current the stage company is only producing is 5000 tons.
-Islamabad Police To Reward Citizens Over Good Driving
Good Citizen Patrol Team will observe the drivers in Islamabad Capital Territory. Islamabad (Pakistan Point News – 15th December, 2018) The Islamabad police will now reward the citizens over following traffic rules. Minister of State for Interior Shehryar Afridi launched the Good Citizen Patrol Team on Saturday. The patrolling team will observe the drivers in Islamabad Capital Territory. Not only that, they will give some reward to the good drivers in Islamabad.
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Wealth Formula Episode 172: Ask Buck

Catch the full episode:
Buck: Welcome back to the show everyone we have a number of questions today on Ask Buck so I am gonna get with it right away the first question is from Beau Cannington. He’s a member of Investor Club and Wealth Formula Network. Here's his question.
Beau Cannington: How much of a negative impact do you think that a rising interest rate environment will have on our commercial real estate investments and specifically the syndication investments with Western Wealth Capital? Thank you very much.
Buck: So Beau good question especially on paper right makes a lot of sense that potentially rising rates could be problematic for multifamily real estate or really for any kind of real estate. But let's go back to basics first because I think it's important, a lot of people don't have a good enough understanding of this in the first place which is when does leverage help you in the first place when does it help to borrow money from the bank? Well leverage only really helps you if you're borrowing at a rate that is less than your effective cap rate and what I mean by effective cap rate is you know you're gonna constantly drive net operating income into a property if you're increasing value of the property if you're in a value-add situation. That's what we do in the Western Wealth Capital opportunities that you're talking about. But that rate at which you borrow has to constantly and always be above your effective cap rate otherwise it's gonna hurt you. All leverage does is to simply amplify the directionality of your profit or losses. So just like it makes you profit more if your effective cap rate is greater than your interest rate, if that you know that income drops to a point where now your cap rate is actually below the interest rate, it's gonna magnify your losses. So that's at a very basic level hopefully that makes sense if it doesn't real issen to it because it's critically important and for some reason you know a lot of people don't pay attention to that especially people who are just getting into real estate for the first time it's really important. Now let's talk about the idea of interest rates themselves I mean the one that most people are familiar with is the one that's on the news all the time. It's a Fed Funds rate you know people call benchmark rate whatever. It's the one that's set by the Federal Reserve and the way I think about the Fed Funds rate is that it's an indicator for whether or not the economy is healthy it's it's sort of a barometer when the rates are getting hiked the economy is in pretty good shape and the Fed is trying to prevent it from getting too hot and to you know potentially prevent inflation. On the other side when the you know Fed lowers rates, like it just did by the way, it signals some level of concern about the economy it you know suggests that maybe there's some deflationary activity going and suggest that there's some recessionary activity going on. You know ultimately the Fed rate is you know it's set by the Fed and it's it's a tool of monetary stimulus to try to control inflation and ultimately mitigate recessionary cycles so it's a way for the Fed to control the economy you know it's one of the ways that they try to control the economy one of the monetary pulse. Now the Fed Funds rate does not equate to mortgage rates I I hear a lot of people you know like on social media and stuff talking about had funds rate goes the perfect time for me to go shopper shop a loan or something like that and well you should know a little bit more than that if you're in the business of real estate and taking loans out but you know I mean I'm seeing like syndicators do that. The Fed fund rate really affects short-term and variable adjusted rates really it's really an indication of what's going on right now in this economy in the very short term. And mortgage rates of course then are far more complex mortgage rates reflect sort of a longer-term health of the economy and they're probably there's a lot that goes into them but probably the thing that you need to watch the most is the ten-year Treasury which is much more a reflection of you know the long-term rates what the market thinks to the markets gonna be in the future right so if there is a belief that there is you know inflation on the horizon you probably see those rates start to rise. Inflation tends to rise when the economy's you know hot so anyway now again so what you should be looking at is the 10-year Treasury now I'm giving you a little bit of background rather than just answering Beau’s question initially but the good news right now is that the Fed fund rate was actually cut so it's actually not going up anyway so we don't need to worry about that right now but what we we also had a big dip in the tenured Treasury so our mortgage rates are very favorable right now as well now that's interesting because that happened before the Fed cut rates you know we recently closed on something within our Investor Club and got really good rates and that was before the that was because the treasury took a dive before it took a dive right before you know the hope this whole thing in the last week or so couple weeks where there's actually a Fed rate. But let's move back again and you know to Beau’s question. Say mortgage rates were going up what would that mean and how would that affect our investments? Now presumably that would be a suggestion that the 10-year Treasury as we talked about was going up which would also be suggestive of an inflationary environment. Now here's where it's really helpful to be invested in real estate like multifamily real estate which is of course my sweet spot. Inflation also means that we raise rents more right so in other words as rates go up so to our rent. So the ten-year Treasury is reflective of inflation when we and so the rates go up but so do rents proportionally and so theoretically we should be in good shape and not worry about it too much because it's really just an adjustment for inflation if you think about it that way. Bottom line is for me personally I don't worry too much about rates when it comes to our Wealth Formula accredited investor opportunities that we're doing and one of the reasons for that is we are incredibly aggressive about value add. So we're constantly in decompression mode as well and we're you know we're locked in to some good rates here too so. Now in addition if you look at the speed at which you know some of these companies work like Western Wealth Capitals the one you mentioned and they're forcing equity into these assets like you know incredibly fast so you're in a dynamic mode of decompressing cap rates in real time and that effectively again de-leverages the asset altogether. So if you found that confusing, listen to it again. But bottom line is if you take nothing else away from this I would tell you that interest rates in general mortgage rates will reflect inflation. So if inflation is going up rates are gonna go up and vice versa and so they tend to cancel each other out don't worry about it that's what I would tell you. If anything rates going down might be potentially more of a concern simply because that's a much more of an indication of an economy that's not healthy. Now we're doing you know BC classed multifamily I still think we're positioned very well so again I don't worry about it too much. Okay let's see next question from Chris Odegard another Investor Club guy and also another Wealth Formula Network guy so Chris here you go.
Chris Odegard: Hey Buck. Chris Odegard here in Kent Washington. My question relates to asset classes. If I remember correctly from Tom Wheelwright he talks about four asset classes: paper or commodities, real assets, real estate real assets aka real estate and businesses. So I believe that you know if I'm a shareholder in coca-cola that's paper but I'm also a private shareholder in a number of small start-up businesses so because my ownership of private shares and small businesses constitute a paper asset or a business asset? And if that's still a paper asset you know what makes you a have what makes you have an investment in business since most of the time you know if you're an owner or part owner of a small non publicly traded business it's usually their share so anyway I'm kind of struggling with the distinction between paper and a business asset classification so appreciate your help on that. Thanks.
Buck: So Chris I thinkx first of all let's back up and just say you know the reality is that these are you know these are just definitions right and there's a gray area between them and we can use them to guide us a little bit as we appropriate things into the right quote-unquote basket but you know we shouldn't get hung up on them too much but let's go back and review the definitions right so what are what are paper assets. So well let's talk about what real assets are so real assets are physical assets right and the thing that they are known for is that they have intrinsic worth due to their substance and property so precious metals commodities real estate land equipment natural resources these all have some kind of intrinsic value to them whereas paper assets would be assets where ownership’s defined only by paper like as you mentioned stocks and currencies and bonds and things like that. The reality is that in in some cases like you're talking about the definitions might not be as useful it might be a better idea to simply ask yourself in a sort of a common-sense way well what is it that I actually own? You know if you own businesses that are not asset heavy lots of you know and what I mean by assets heavy is like you know lots of machinery, stuff that you could liquidate, it's probably fair to put it in the you know the paper side of things. On the other hand if you have a business that as a significant balance sheet of stuff that could be liquidated you might actually put it in you know the real asset bucket. But I will tell you in knowing yours what you're talking about you invest in a lot of startups I would say that I personally would probably never consider an investment limited partner investment in a start-up as a real asset I mean I think the bottom line is that most of those businesses are not going to have a significant amount of equity or collateral to back your debt so there's not a lot to liquidate there's not a lot of intrinsic value in those businesses other than their ability to produce income. So that's where I would put that. Now what gives real estate and precious metals let's go back to that real status well it's ultimately again their inherent value. that it can't really be erased the way a stock price can go to zero. Or frankly if you talk about businesses what happens if the business that you're invested in Chris what if that goes to zero right? If there's no profit if there's no nothing to distribute etc it's not worth anything anymore right so that that to me is probably the biggest thing to distinguish. Although I should bring up I keep thinking about this as we're talking that you know I was listening to the Peter Schiff they still like to listen to I think he's a smart guy just you know he's a little stubborn and he's always thinking the this guy is falling which I don't I don't agree with him but you know he's on this big rampage against Bitcoin and he's been debating all these people about gold versus Bitcoin which I actually think it's kind of a silly debate because I think the gold and Bitcoin people should sort of you know be on the same side but I think you know it might be in part because Peter sells gold and it's a good opportunity to get in front of people, but one of his arguments about gold is that the reason that it has value is that it has intrinsic properties and those intrinsic properties are that it can be used you know to melt down and make stuff and I think there's true but the problem with this argument there in my opinion is that seriously for those of you who are out there like owning gold have you've owned a few ounces of gold and you store it somewhere are you seriously owning it because you know because you might be able to use it sometime or because somebody might be able to use it or are you using it because somebody thinks it has a value? I would argue that the reason you own it in most cases unless you're like a big jewelry buff or whatever is because somebody because you or you want somebody else to you know at some point pay you more for that then what you bought it for so in that respect it's not a whole lot different from like Bitcoin right like you know people the value of gold it has to do with the fact that it also has a monetary value it's really seen that way if you took that out of it and all of it was just a matter of it being jewelry it would not be worth as much as it is but anyway that's my take on that a little unrelated but I thought I would throw in that commentary. Next question let's see is from Ramin Rafie here we go.
Ramin Rafie: Hi Buck. I'm a physician general practitioner. I've been out of residency for about decade now. I have been an employed physician working for a larger corporation making house calls and a hospice director for their large healthcare organization which actually has recently been bought by an insurance company, that's a whole nother story. I actually went to medical school in California. And I've always wondered if it's feasible for me to open up my own kind of practice I don't know enough about the tax structures reimbursement etc, etc. I understand insurances are a big problem and you have to hire a lot of staff that's a waste of resources to strike to insurances but I was debating if solo practitioner doable perhaps direct primary care and if so is one better off just doing a cash face back to this and the legal structure of either having an LLC or an S corp or C Corp I don't know if you can operate on that that's gonna be I guess I need to talk to it accounts it's about that I figured I'd ask you and you might know you might not but I enjoy listening to your podcast it's amazing how many physicians up there are in the same boat. Thanks great time.
Buck: Alright so we do have a lot of physician listeners non-physicians to probably about in case you're wondering it's probably about but not just physicians but health care people right so you know physicians dentists and you know you know high doctors and you know all sorts of stuff, chiropractors and that's probably because well I've had a healthcare background myself on doing a few different kinds of surgery and stuff like that but thanks for the question. I'm gonna try to I mean there's a lot there and I think honestly the truth of the matter is I'm not necessarily an expert on all of these issues but you know some of the things I can answer I think will be relative relatively useful to anybody who's thinking about going on their own. First of all I'd say that if you're starting your own thing you know it an LLC is generally going to always be the best structure for a small business for maximum flexibility you can take, if for some reason you want to be taxed as a c-corp you could where you do an S selection so that's pretty easy. The answer your question of you know can you do it the answer is absolutely yes. There are solo practitioners out there now and you can do it and you could probably do it better and that's always generally been my philosophy when starting businesses usually I don't start businesses I'm you know I don't start businesses that have not in some way shape or form shown that they can be a success, I usually rip off somebody's idea and then pivot a little bit add a little bit something and executed and so I think to the extent that there are plenty of sole practitioners out there in California still I think it absolutely can be done. You know so your question about cash versus insurance based medicine just keeping it brief I'll tell you that it's not really an expertise of mine but by but what I can tell you is that coming out of the door with any business if it's just a cash business you're gonna have to advertise like crazy and you're gonna have to run it like a business which not everybody is ready for so the nice thing for physicians and dentists sometimes is that you know if you do take third party payers like you know these insurance companies they drive patients to your door so especially in the area of primary care there's a shortage so I don't think you'd have any trouble if you took insurance getting filled up really quickly and succeeding. Now as far as advice on how to move forward in general first you know again in this applies anybody who's starting a business and anything in my opinion, first of all finding somebody who's doing what you you know you want to do in another market and kind of copy them if you can reach out to them even better if they're not in a competing market but find in you’re case find a you know solo practitioner market that's similar to what you're trying to do and is showing a success and you know see if they're willing to spend some time with you I would offer to pay them because everybody's helpful until it's like damn I'm busy and this guy wants me to help him. But I think if you say hey now you get a successful thing there I'm looking for some help and you know looking for some consulting from a successful practice it might be useful. Another option of course is to go straight to a consultant and again this applies to every business in my opinion. Of course there's a lot of you know consultants out there. I had one for my first practice ultimately it was a cosmetic surgery business and again I ran this thing not like a medical thing, I didn't take any third-party insurance and stuff but I marketed like crazy I knew nothing about running a business or marketing when I started this the business I set out to start ended up looking nothing like the one I ended up with. What I ended up with was a lot better because I learned a lot on the job. But a lot of the back end things whether it's medical whether it's you know any kind of business or the same right I mean you've got to figure out how do you pay bills how do you set up all the systems accounting payroll and that for me where the consulting was like a really useful thing and I'm you know at the time I think I must have paid like twenty five thirty thousand dollars for and it seemed really expensive but I can tell you in any start-up situation you are much better off spending some money up front with someone holding your hand getting you started quickly and you know I have been you know. I literally have friends I have a couple of friends who've been trying to start up their own practices from multiple years now they could have been up and running in like three months if they just had paid somebody to get it done. So don't be that person you know anyway that's a message for everyone really if you have a problem, now remember this if you have a problem that you can write a check to someone to fix, you don't have a problem right? So that's the way you deal with this stuff don't spend all your time trying to deal with stupid little problems think of yourself as a you know is a thoroughbred right I mean you save yourself for you know high-value tasks. If you mess around and try to do everything yourself you're gonna end up worse I pretty much guarantee it, that goes for anyone starting any kind of business for the first time. So finally I would just say that I don't know a single I don't know a single health care provider in particular I know there's a lot of you out there with your own practice that once you have your own thing would ever go back to working for someone else or who'd ever want to go back for working for someone else, I know some of you have done it after you've sold your practice which is different you sitting on a huge chunk of cash but if you have any sort of entrepreneurial spirit and like the idea of not having limits on the upper end I would highly encourage it. All right so hopefully that's helpful and you know it's broadly I think it's broadly applicable to a lot of people who have ever contemplated any kind of entrepreneurial activities. So let's see the last one that's an actual voice one so let's do that from Ravi.
Ravi Ghanta: Hi buck this is Ravi Ghanta I just wanted to say thank you for all of your hard work and for providing such valuable information to this community. As part of the investor I've gained so much knowledge from you as well as from your guests on your podcast. Unfortunately I have not been able to attend the Meetup and I won't be able to go to the next meetup in Dallas in September, however I was wondering if you would consider creating a directory of some sort where those who are willing to provide their name their mailing address email address or even phone number to create a community where we can interact with each other you know perhaps by having this information we can even meet up with each other in different places informally, we can also discuss things you know we may all many of us are in the medical field and other specialties or other aspects of business and crafts developing contacts in that way just a thought. But once again thank you for your insightful information and I look forward to continuing to work with you. Thank you.
Buck: All right thanks Ravi. Ravi again is a member of the investor group now I don't think Ravi's part of Wealth Formula Network and that could be part of the confusion or not confusion but part of the question you answer the question which is, is there community that you could join or have you know or have some additional contact. The first thing I'm going to tell you there is that's really what Wealth Formula Network was really all about. So Wealth Formula Network is the online private community we have you know a very strong community there are a lot of people who are really just interested in connecting with one another it is of course that started out with the course and the course was with you know with Tom Wheelwright, Ken McElroy real estate guys bunch of guys I know sort of us gives you the bases gives you the foundation for things that we talk about and then we have these bi-weekly phone calls these bi-weekly phone calls are very useful they're not just phone calls they're zoom phone calls zoom video so we can see each other it's very personal and we have very in-depth conversation, people who are on in well formula Network often create relationships off line off community and that's certainly an option for you. In terms of online communities I would say that I probably wouldn't do anything else and the reason being that anytime you preside over an online community you kind of have to keep an eye on it and I I have well formula Network and that's really all I really want to focus in on I don't really want to you know monitor other sites. As far as you know people putting their information out and stuff I don't necessarily have a problem with that the thing that I worry about is if it's anywhere that people can access, I worry about your privacy because you know we have an extremely robust audience here including you know an accredited investor list of over a thousand people and if there's some like you know advisors registered advisors or you know people who are trying to get to those people they will spam you like crazy if they ever got a hold of that. But Ravi let me think about it because there could be a way to do you know to what you're talking about to a certain extent you know we certainly like I said we certainly already do this kind of thing and within Wealth Formula Network if that's of interest you check it out I think you'd probably really enjoy that if you enjoy the show. So all right I don't have any more video I don't have any recorded questions I have a couple of written ones I'm going to get to those the first one says is from Robert McLeod. He says I've been listening your podcast for the last couple years now I know you're a huge proponent of investing in real estate assets especially multifamily but I can't remember you've ever discussed mobile homes. I was wondering if you've looked into investing in or thought of mobile home park space. Thanks for the informative podcast. So it's a sensitive thing because I know there's a lot of people were interested in that people listen to this and friends of mine who are involved in this but you ask I'll answer. To be honest I'm not a big fan of that space right now here's why the cap rates on these things are approaching multifamily real estate right multifamily can always be improved significantly and attract higher level tenants and then areas get gentrified, they get improved I mean there's some improvement ability in mobile home parks right but it's really capped I mean think about it at some point you don't want to live in a damn mobile home anymore right. so here's a good example of you know how multifamily doesn't really have on that cap Chicago Lincoln Park is one of the like fanciest parts of Chicago's really expensive jam-packed full of mansions and stuff now, but there's also a bunch of apartment buildings that are over a hundred years old and you know forty years ago Lincoln Park was an absolute dump and it was dangerous and no one wanted to live there and then it got gentrified and all these places that were probably low income housing are now these incredibly luxurious apartments have been upgraded like crazy and now they are you know now they're multi-million dollar asset selling at ridiculous cap rates. Now tell me how do you do that with a mobile home community? You can't right. So at some point if people are doing well they want to move out of a mobile home park so you can't keep raising rents and expect people to live there so that's one reason so now so if you're capped on an appreciation of rents it's gonna cap your equity upside so now the syndicators out there that I'm seeing especially on the limited partners side are giving returns that frankly are inferior to what we're getting in multifamily an investor club by a longshot I know some of you like this area but I don't and I sure as hell would never invest in a limited partnership like this for returns that are less than double-digit again that's just me though. So finally let me just say this, my philosophy right now in general, buy quality assets don't buy crap okay. I see people posting stuff on Facebook about single family you know Class C Class D homes they bought we're supposed to cash flow like crazy and they you know all they have is problems now you know the idea is that these things might look good on numbers but when you add in the capex and paying for damages and you tenants I mean you may not cash flow at all people are losing money on this stuff left and right so there's a reason why these numbers look so good on paper because they're not good investments and people are trying to sell you them so bottom line is I'm not saying that mobile home parks are you know bad for everyone. I'm just saying that I personally look at the alternative and the alternatives from me are better. I prefer to focus on high quality assets and markets that are growing quickly right. I mean to me I mean it may be boring and repetitive what I do but I can tell you from personal experience it works and I think chasing yield in the idea of going to lower quality assets are going to tertiary markets is a very very bad idea because those are the markets those are the areas in my view that are going to suffer the most if and when there's a significant recessionary activity or market turnaround so hopefully that answers that. Next question Mark Dvorak. Hello can you talk about on your podcast about real estate professional? I feel like it's the ultimate green card to play in real estate as passive losses are you limited? Everyone only talks about this powerful designation briefly. Like the 750 hour rule, can two people count towards those? What are the max deductions and then he says for LP is what are the max deductions one can get without being a real estate professional, a show detailing all these options. Well let me just be brief about this, the reason people are briefed about it is because for the most part there the definition of real estate professional is this ok 750 hours of documented actual work in real estate like not just being a limited partner but you know looking for real estate acquiring you know talking to people whatever you got to have that 750 hours per year and it can't be two people no it has to be one person and you can't have anything that you're doing more of so it's not I've heard some people say they're gonna try to do it with a full-time job I just don't recommend it I think the IRS is gonna not take you seriously in that situation but you know you could try. In that situation of course the losses there's no cap to your losses. The beauty of it is what what you're talking about is say you have a spouse who has a W2 income that's active income but as you as a professional real estate professional all of the passive losses that you generate through depreciation where most people who are not real estate investors can only offset those against passive investments, you can offset that against active active income because your losses as a real estate professional your what would be passive loss has become activated. So if you've got $100,000 loss from real estate depreciation you could offset you know your hundred thousand dollars of your Weiss active income because you're filing jointly right. So that's that's the Holy Grail you're right I think it's a big deal and so but that's really all there is to it. I mean you have to find a CPA who can guide you on this you know I would recommend you know for somebody from WealthAbility and pretty much anybody there's gonna tell you all the right rules but really the issue with the that is you got to find a CPA who's going to tell you how to do it and then stand by you in in the event of an audit. An audit not it's not a bad you know it's not the end of the world it happens anybody's making money you gotta have somebody who is actually you know going to defend that successfully. So anyway that's it in terms of the caps about you know being a limited partner and what are some of the maximum deductions you can get without being a real estate professional the honest truth is that I don't I don't know that there's any really maximum deductions for real estate I mean listen if you have a hundred thousand dollars or two hundred thousand or a million dollars of passive income and you have those losses you have passive losses out of the same amount you could deduct it all so there's no cap at all. I mean the only thing I think there's a cap on I think charitable giving is about fifty percent you know charitable giving fifty percent but you know and then and then there's all your typical things that I don't you know I don't really get into about you know the basic accounting deductions and things like that for other things but I'll tell you from the standpoint of real estate there really is no cap on deductions, it's just you know it's what you have whatever if you're in the passive column as is a non real estate professional you could deduct all that and then the active side you could deduct all of your depreciation against all of your income. So that's pretty straightforward. Okay last question and it's from Betty and she said Buck I heard you talking about a bad drug reaction you had a Minneapolis. What was the drug that gave you the bad reaction yeah so let me let me tell you about that I am those last show I talked about that was my near-death experience thing where I thought I was gonna die, listen to this show you'll get the whole story but bottom line is as it turned out it was a CBD tincture. And I took some CBD for my back in in Santa Barbara and it worked really well for me and then I don't know what was in this bottle that I bought but it just gave me some sort of crazy out-of-body experience and I'm it wasn't like being stoned okay I I've been to college I know what that feels like was something was very wrong, anyway it was the CBD it's a long story. Bottom line is if you are interested in that story and how what I came about listened to show where I talk about this in the last show I think it's probably last week according where this is and you will you'll hear about that. By the way, I'll say that you know riffing off that last show I'm looking again those vintage cars to things that mattered the most of lessons that I had there were to make sure to take care of your family so look at Wealth Formula Banking make sure you you know get into that and and and try to you know align your investments with legacy to a certain extent that's one of my takeaways the other one was to try to have a little bit of fun here and and don't always push it away into delayed gratification. Okay that's it for the questions today and we will be right back.
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Dr. Feng Cao: The history and Status of TPS in blockchain

Dr. Feng Cao: The history and Status of TPS in blockchain

1. TPS Origin of Blockchain

TPS (Transaction Per Second) is not a new word, it is usually used in database to refer to the number of database transactions performed per second. It can be calculated by dividing the number of transactions processed per unit time by the length of time. There are already many ways to improve TPS in traditional database, and the transaction types include insert, delete, query and update. However, in the world of blockchain, all of transactions saved in blocks are hard to be tampered. Thus, what we can do for blockchain transactions only refers to insert and query.
In some ways, blockchain is a new type of distributed database system. The impossible triangle problem about decentralization (number of nodes), efficiency (TPS) and security in distributed systems, is the core issue in the design of blockchain system. Therefore, it makes no sense to simply talk about the TPS of the blockchain without considering decentralization and security. Some projects claim that they have solved the impossible triangle problem, it is just market propaganda in some ways. You don't have to take it seriously. A theorem is called a theorem because it couldn’t be broken so easily.
In traditional database, transactions are stored in various tables, and the number of rows in a table is usually unlimited. As long as there are better approaches to access data such as index and memory data writing, TPS could be well promoted. In the blockchain system, transactions are packaged in block and one block is chained after another. Also, the validity of transactions depends on the consensus of most nodes in system. Thus the TPS of the blockchain is limited by the block size (the number of transactions that can be packed in one block) and the time of block generation. The time of block generation is the sum of the time required for generating a new block and the time required for the nodes to reach consensus.
Since the Bitcoin blockchain was born in 2009, it has been widely criticized that TPS is not high enough. In particular, the POW consensus mechanism is too slow. It takes 10 minutes to generate a block (in fact, a block in 10 minutes is not a limitation of the POW mechanism itself, but an ingenious design for generating a new bitcoin). However, due to the small number of users at that time, the requirements for large-scale TPS were not so urgent. In 2013, Ethereum proposed a blockchain-based smart contract, which opened up a new imagination for the large-scale industry application of the blockchain. Ethereum 1.0 is still based on the improved POW algorithm which generate a block in 15 seconds. TPS seems like high enough for a long time. Even some people hold the view that TPS is not important for blockchain.

2. Isn’t TPS the core issue in blockchain?

All of this has changed with the industry application of blockchain technology. The proposal of Ethereum smart contract and the rise of consortium blockchains in 2015 opened the door for the industry application of blockchain. People attempt to apply blockchain to various industries, finance, supply chain, energy, medical, education, and e-commerce, etc. However, all of these industry applications have requirements for TPS, e.g., various financial services, booking train tickets online and e-commerce. Alibaba would announce a new system peak transaction number on Double 11 shopping carnival (Online promotion day of November 11th each year). It is TPS of their system. When we shopping online, no one can bear the phone without response for a while. The development of consortium blockchains and the application of the industry in 2016 have made many blockchain development teams realize the importance of TPS.
In addition to the TPS, the system response time (RT, Response Time) is also an important indicator that directly affects the user experience in blockchain applications. The TPS affects the system RT. When system is not overload, all transactions in the unit time of block generation can be packaged in one block and the system response time is equal to the time of block generation. However, when the system is overload, that is, all transactions in the unit time cannot be packaged in the same block, the system response time will increase exponentially with the number of new blocks that need to be generated.
The system confirmation time is another related indicator. In simple terms, it is the time to wait for the transaction to be confirmed. Taking online payment as an example, the system response time is the time required to initiate a deduction and the system confirmation time is the time required to complete deduction and the transaction confirmation. In the POW system, the transaction needs to wait for 6 blocks to get final confirmation. In order to enhance the user experience, some trading systems allow the confirmation of transactions in two blocks during small transactions, which is a tradeoff between the user experience and the finality of the transaction.
Although TPS has attracted the attention of practitioners in the application of the consortium blockchain, the impact is relatively limited, and has not caused a wide range of concerns. In 2017, ICO, a popular project, rose, usually attracted the attention of thousands of users around the world. In the same year, Status started a crowd sales, it raised a three-day jam in Ethereum. People can't stand the experience that the transaction is too late to confirm. The blockchain TPS bottleneck has once again become a hot spot in the industry.
In 2018, several public-chain projects were also launched. One of the important purposes was to enhance TPS and make large-scale blockchain applications possible. Blink of an eye, it’s the second half of 2018 now, EOS was born from the beginning of the nominal million-level TPS to the actual landing of 3000+TPS. TPS uselessness has once again risen. One of the arguments is that EOS's TPS is almost idle in normal time, and 10 is enough for usual use. When people can't find the application scenario, TPS is a pseudo-demand. Is it really the truth? In fact, on the contrary, blockchain application innovations are endless. Without a strong TPS support, any large-scale global application can only be a dream. The bottleneck of TPS limits the pace of innovation in blockchain applications. Just as we always need a higher performance computer, the pace of human social information and asset digitization can never be stopped.

3. Are we talking about the same TPS?

Corresponding to the opinion of the TPS is useless, the statement of millions of TPS is endless. Fans of various projects often compare the TPS of this project with another project. Are we really talking about TPS as the same TPS?
First of all, once we mention TPS, we can not ignore the blockchain network structure and the nodes’ software and hardware configuration. TPS can only be compared under the same network and node hardware environment. There are some blockchian network factors we should consider:
How many nodes in the system? Dozens, hundreds, thousands or tens of thousands?
How many nodes participate in consensus? Nodes that do not participate in the consensus in the system cannot contribute to the decentralization of the system.
What is the geographical distribution of these network nodes? Are they in a LAN, or are they distributed in a city, in a province, in a country or in several countries? Are they distributed intercontinental or distributed all over the world?
How does the node hardware and software configuration? Such as network bandwidth, memory capacity, whether the disk is SSD, disk IO speed, disk capacity, CPU frequency, number of CPU cores, operating system, etc.
In a word,the high TPS in a limited WAN is often hard to achieve in a global WAN. Because network delay often makes TPS greatly decreased or even nodes unable to reach consensus and stabilize blocks.
Second, where is the transaction set from for the test? Is it a manually generated data set or a real transaction set? What is the details of the transaction set? Such as the number of Tx(transactions), the complexity of Tx(asset transfer, smart contract calling, cross-chain, cross-sharding ), and the duration of time (a few minutes, hours, days, months or years?),etc.
Finally, what’s the statistical methods of TPS? In the same network with hardware, software and test environment, different statistical methods of TPS will lead to different test results. There are some different computational methods of TPS as below:
1) Normal window N: As the test progresses, continuously increases the window length N. Divide the number of all transactions processed by the current system by the current window length.
TPS = Sum(Tx) / N.
2) Segment window w: Segment the time axis by the window length w. Count the number of transactions processed in each window w, then divide it by the time window w.
TPS = Sum (Tx in window w) / w.
3) Sliding window sw: Slide the time axis by the window length w. Count the number of transactions processed in each sliding window sw, then divide by the time window sw.
TPS = Sum (Tx in sliding window sw) / sw.
If we set the same time window, we can continuously obtain a variety of different TPS, and we can further calculate the average TPS and peak TPS.
Take the above figure as an example. Suppose a point represents 100 transactions Tx.
1.Normal window(window length = 8)TPS value is

The average TPS is (62.5+56.25+66.67+75)/4 = 65.105, peak TPS is 75
  1. Segment window(window length = 8) TPS value is

The average TPS is (62.5+50+87.5+100)/4 = 75, peak TPS is 100
  1. Sliding window(window length = 8) TPS value is

The average TPS is
(62.5+62.5+62.5+62.5+75+75+75+62.5+50+37.5+37.5+37.5+37.5+50+62.5+75+87.5+100+100+100+100+100+100+100+100)/25 = 72.5, peak TPS is 100
Obviously, different window types result in different average TPS and peak TPS
We can infer that different window length would get slightly different results.

4. Approach to improve TPS

At present, it is a common urgent affair to improve TPS for every public chain system. Everyone is actively developing various algorithms to improve the system's TPS. Common methods are divided into the following categories:
- Increase the block size. This is the easiest and most effective way. By increasing the block size, more Tx could be packed in the same block. Under the premise that the time of block generation is given, more Tx are packaged, which means higher TPS. For example, the BCH is a block size expansion of the BTC. However, increasing blocks size will increase the communication cost between nodes in each consensus process. Thus block size can’t be expanded indefinitely.
- Increase the frequency of block generation. When the number of packed Tx in a single block is given, increasing the frequency of block generation can obviously improve the TPS. For example, a block is generated from 10 minutes increased to 15 seconds. However, increasing the frequency of block generation too much often sacrifices the stability of the system, especially in the case of large WAN delays.
- Use higher performance computers (nodes) such as dedicated mining machines. Replace time-consuming software calculations with hardware and accelerate hardware to achieve faster processing speeds, such as various bitcoin mining machines.
- Side chain, under chain and status channel. The side chain is a concept relative to the main chain. The main chain is often referred to the blockchain system that needs to be further improved performance and it is also difficult to change in the short term, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. The basic idea of side chain and under-chain is to create a relatively high-speed or relatively low-security side chain, and put the small amount but high-frequency transactions on the side chain for quick confirmation, and then return to main chain when it is really necessary to settle. The status channel is the invention of Lightning Network, which is an independent channel established between the two accounts to achieve fast transaction. Besides, the transitivity of the channel makes blockchain become a network with various channels, so as to achieve rapid inter-transfer between any two accounts.
-Sharding. Sharding is a typical "divide and conquer" computational approach. The basic idea is to dynamically separate nodes in a blockchain network into several different fragments. All Tx received in the unit time are allocated to different groups. The sharding technique can be specifically classified as token level sharding and smart contract level sharding. Most sharding techniques can only be achieved at the token level. For the sharding of smart contracts, there are no particularly good solutions due to the more complicated state sharding problems. Some projects have proposed state sharding solutions in restricted environments.
- Native multi-chain. Native multi-chain is a typical parallelization method. Different from the traditional bitcoin and Ethereum single-chain structure, the structure of the multi-chain system usually contains one main chain and several sub-chains, and multiple chains can generate blocks at the same time, which makes the block calculation parallelized and greatly improves the TPS. Although the idea of the native multi-chain is easy to understand, in the real development process, we need to dedicate to solve the interoperability of the main chain and the sub-chain. Otherwise, the main chain can easily become the bottleneck of the multi-chain system and thus affecting the scalability of the multi-chain system.
- New consensus algorithm. Convert from POW to POS. Typical POS algorithms include algorithms of the DPOS and BFT. For example, EOS is based on the DPOS algorithm. The new generation of blockchain 3.0 systems often use BFT algorithm and its successors, such as Algorand, Definity, COSMOS/Tendermint, PCHAIN, etc. The traditional PBFT algorithm has the problem of high communication complexity, usually N2, which is often only applicable to the consortium blockchains scenario. At present, each new BFT algorithm often achieves the purpose of reducing communication cost by introducing dynamic or random. Although there is no need to wait for six blocks to achieve finality like the traditional POW algorithm because PBFT has the characteristics of real-time consensus within a single block, there is still a problem with PBFT that internal nodes need four-time consensus. COSMOS/Tendermint innovatively reduced the internal 4 consensus of the PBFT algorithm to 2 consensuses. PCHAIN's PDBFT further reduced the internal 4 consensus to 1 consensus, which greatly reduced the communication cost between nodes.

5. Prospect

The development of blockchain technology will continue to increase along with the blockchain refactoring the entire process of human society. With the emergence of a faster and more stable blockchain 3.0 system, we will usher in a new blueprint for the blockchain value of the Internet and the global village.

submitted by pchain_org to Pchain_Org_Official [link] [comments]

BIP99½ - An Optimized Procedure to Increase the Block Size Limit

BIP: 99½
Title: An Optimized Procedure to Increase the Block Size Limit
Author: Jorge Stolfi jstolfi
Status: Crufty Draft
Created: 2015-08-30
EDIT: Changed the critical block number from 385000 to 390000 (~2016-01-02).
EDIT2: Slight wording changes ("hopefully" "assuming" as per tsontar).
EDIT3: Changed again critical block number to 395000 (~2016-02-06). Note that the traffic has increased faster than expected, so all predictions would have to be updated.
This BIP proposes setting the maximum block size to 8 MB starting with block number 395000.
This proposal aims to postpone by a few years the imminent congestion of the Bitcoin network, which is expected to occur in 2016 if traffic continues to increase at the present rate. It also aims to reduce the risk of a crippling "spam attack", that could delay a large fraction of the legitimate traffic for hours or days at a relatively modest cost for the attacker.
The current average traffic T is ~120'000 transactions issued by all clients, per day (~1.38 tx/s, ~0.45 MB/block, ~830 tx/block assuming ~530 bytes/tx).
The maximum network capacity C with 1 MB blocks, revealed by the recent "stress tests", is ~200'000 tx/day (~2.32 tx/s, ~0.75 MB/block, ~1390 tx/block). Presumably, the main reason why it is less than 1 MB/block is because certain shortcuts taken by miners often force them to mine empty blocks. Note that the traffic now is 60% of the effective capacity.
Since the traffic rate has weekly, daily, and random fluctuations by several tens of percent, recurrent "traffic jams" (when T is higher than C for several tens of minutes) will start to occur when the average daily traffic is still well below the capacity -- say 80% (160'000 tx/day) or even less. For transactions issued during a traffic jam, the average wait time for first confirmation, which is normally 10-15 minutes, will jump to hours or even days. Fee adjustments may change the order in which individual transactions are confirmed, but the average delay will not be reduced by a single second.
Over the past 12 months, the traffic has approximately doubled, from ~60'000 tx/day. The growth seems to be linear, at the rate of 5000 tx/day per month. If the growth continues to be linear, it should reach 160'000 tx/day in ~8 months (before May 2016). If the growth is assumed to be exponential, it should reach that level in ~5 months, in February 2016.
If the maximum block size were lifted to 8 MB, assuming that empty and partial blocks would continue to be mined in about the same proportion as today, the effective capacity of the network should rise in proportion, to ~6 MB/block (1'600'000 tx/day, 5.90 tx/s). Based on last year's growth, the 80% capacity level (1'280'000 tx/day) will be reached in ~19 years assuming linear growth, and ~3.4 years assuming exponential growth.
Spam attacks
An effective spam attack would have to generate enough spam transactions, with suitable fees, to reduce the effective capacity of the network to a fraction of the legitimate traffic. Then the fraction of the traffic that cannot be serviced will pile up in the queues, forming a growing backlog until the spam attack ends; and the backlog will then clear at the rate limited by the free capacity C - T.
With the current capacity C (200'000 tx/day) and traffic T (120'000 tx/day) a spam attack that blocks half the legitimate traffic would require a spam rate S of at least C - T/2 = 140'000 tx/day (1.62 tx/s, 0.52 MB/block). The fee F per kB offered by those transactions would have to be larger than all but the top ~420 transactions in the queue. If that fee were to be 1 USD/tx, the attack may cost as little as 140'000 USD/day. The backlog of legitimate transactions would grow at the rate of T/2 = ~2500 tx/hour, and, when the attack stops, will be cleared at the maximum rate C - T = ~3300 tx/hour.
With 8 MB block limit, assuming that the effective capacity C will be 1.6 M tx/day and traffic T at 60% of the capacity (like today; expected to be the case 3 years from now), a spam attack that blocks half the traffic would require C - T/2 = 1.12 M tx/day of spam (8 times what an attack would require today). If the required fee F were to be 1 USD/tx, the attack would cost 1.12 million USD per day (ditto).
The maximum block size would be programmed to be 1 MB until block number 394999, and 8 MB starting with block 395000; which, at 144 blocks/day, is expected to be mined around 2016-02-06.
On the test network, the increase will start with block 390000, which is expected to be mined around 2016-01-02.
In the interest of a quick and uneventful passage through that block number, major miners should publicly state their approval or rejection of it as soon as possible.
If and when the plan is approved by miners comprising a majority of the hashpower, all miners and clients should be alerted and urged to upgrade or modify their software so that it accepts blocks up to 8 MB after the stated block number.
If and when the plan is rejected by miners comprising a majority of the hashpower, all miners and clients shoudl be alerted and warned that this BIP will not be implemented.
The proposal should have a good chance to be approved and implemented, since the five largest Chinese miners (who have more than 50% of the total hash rate) have already stated in writing that they would agree to an increase of the limit to 8 MB by the end of the year, even theough they did not approve futher increases (in particular, the doublings specified by BIP101). Several major services and other miners have expressed approval for such an increase in the net.
There have been claims that increasing the block size beyond 1 MB would have negative consequences for the health of the network. However, no serious effects were demonstrated, by argument or experimentally. There are worrisome trends in sme parameters, such as the number of full nodes and and the centralization of mining; but those trends obviously are not related to the block size limit, and there is no reason to expect that they would be halted or reversed by imposing a 1 MB cap on the block size starting next year.
It should be noted that the increase is only on the block size limit; the actual block sizes will continue to be determined by the traffic. Even with optimistic forecasts, the average block size should not exceed the 1 MB limit before the end of 2016. If any harmful effects of larger blocks are demonstrated until then, the limt can be reduced again by decision of a majority of the miners.
It has been claimed that netowrk congestion would be beneficial since it would create a "fee market" whereby clients would compete for space in the blocks by paying higer transaction fees. It has been claimed that those fees would compensate for the drop in miners revenue that will follow the next reward halving in 2016. It has also been claimed that the higher fees will inhibit spam and other undesirable uses of the blockchain. However, the "fee market" would be a fundamental totally untested change in the client view of the system. It proposes a novel pricing mecanism that is not used by any existing commercial service, physical or internet-based. There is no evidence that the "fee market" would work as claimed, or that it would achieve any of its expected results. (Rather, there are arguments that it would not.) Congestion would defintely put a cap on usage of the protocol, reduce its value as a payment system, and drive away much legitimate traffic. Congestion, and the unpredictable delays that result from it, are also unlikely to make bitcoin attractive to high-value non-payment uses, such as settlements of other networks or notarization of asset trades. And, mainly, there is no reason to expect that the fee market will generate enough fees to cover the 500'000 USD/day that the miners will lose with the next halving.
If this change to the Bitcoin protocol gets implemented by a majority of the miners, all players will have to replace or modify their software so that it accepts blocks up to 8 MB after block 395000.
Miners who fail to do so may soon find themselves mining a minority branch of the blockchain, that grows at a much slower rate, will probably be congested from the start, and will probably die soon. That branch will probably be ignored by all major services, therefore any rewards that they earn on that branch will probably be worthless and soon unspendable.
Clients who fail to upgrade or fix their software will not "see" the majority-mined chain once someone creates a block with more than 1 MB. Then, those clients will either be unable to move their coins until they fix their software, or may see only the minority branch above. Transactions that they issue before the fix may get confirmed on the main branch, but may appear to remain unconfirmed on the minority chain. Useof tools like replace-by-fee or child-pays-for-parent while in that state may give confusing results.
The author has never owned or used bitcoin, and has a rather negative view of it. In fact, he is a regular contributor to /buttcoin. While he sees bitcoin as a significant advance toward its stated goal ("a peer-to-peer payment system that does not depend on trusted third parties"), and finds bitcoin interesting as a computer science experiment, he is quite skeptical about its chances of widespread adoption. He also deplores the transformation of bitcoin into a negative-sum pyramid investment schema, which not only has spread much misery and distress allover the world, but has also spoiled the experiment by turning mining into an industrial activity controlled by half a dozen large companies. He hopes that the pyramid will collapse as soon as possible, and that the price will drop to the level predicted by the money velocity equation, so that the aberrant mining industry will disappear. (However, he does not think that this BIP will help to achieve this goal; quite the opposite, unfortunately.)
submitted by jstolfi to bitcoin_uncensored [link] [comments]

Kerala’s making an ambitious pledge to go organic
Despite its congenial climate, the Indian state of Kerala is not agriculturally self-sufficient. Relying on produce from neighboring states wasn't a problem for Keralans, who have high literacy rates and tend to choose better paying jobs over farm positions.
But then chemicals on imported food were blamed for high cancer rates. This, in turn, has sparked a revolution: A push by the state government to ensure its agriculture is 100 percent organic by 2020.
Just five years ago, Kerala imported 70 percent of its food. Biju Prabakhar, the director of Agricultural Development for Kerala, says that between 2010 and 2013 they started finding high amounts of pesticide residue on vegetables as well as antibiotics in meat and poultry.
“[The chemical residue] was actually widely publicized in the media — that these kinds of spurious materials are in our food, and the medical community agreed this is one of main reasons for the cancer, because Kerala has a high incidence of cancer,” Prabakhar said.
With cancer rates increasing more than 10 percent faster than in the rest of the country, the urgency to become agriculturally self-sufficient and chemical-free started to grow.
The ambitious goal is not without challenges. A third of the state’s agricultural land is devoted to export crops like black pepper, turmeric, rubber, coffee and coconuts. Since there is a shortage of farm labor, farmers favor these crops over more labor-intensive vegetables. Kerala’s low birth rate and high literacy rate means there are better paying jobs to choose from besides farming.
“In last 10 to 20 years, what is happening in Kerala is that, because people were moving away from farming, most of the people who have land, they are into other occupations, so the land [is] lying fallow,” says Usha Shulapani, director of the sustainability nonprofit Thanal. That unused land resulted in people buying land as a commodity and agricultural land in an already small state became increasingly unavailable.
Shulpani also says land leases are too short to incentivize farmers to keep up the quality of the soil. To combat the lack of motivation to maintain soil quality, the Communist state government created a plan called “Green Kerala.” The program has many facets, including taxing owners who leave land fallow or taking it over for landless farmers, planting vegetable gardens in schools and creating biogas from compost. One initiative, the “agripreneurship fair” held at the former Maharajah’s Kanakakkunnu Palace, showcased various ways farmers can add value to their produce: from turning coconut fiber into shoes and handbags to making pasta from root vegetables and turning jackfruit into wine. Farmers can bring their root crops to the Central Tuber Research Institute and turn them into jam, flour, snacks and much more.
One problem farmers face in Kerala is soil quality, as the earth is acidic and needs lime to grow food. But heavy monsoon rains wash much of the lime out of the soil, so mineral supplements are vital for healthy soil. But many government subsidies only cover the cheapest nitrogen fertilizer, urea.
“The subsidized urea is given at around five rupees per kilogram” says Thomas Anish Johnson, a soil survey officer who teaches as Kerala Agricultural University. “While the other vital nutrients, that is phosphorus and potash, around 20 to 25 rupees per kilogram — so that is three to four times the price of the urea.”
There’s also the problem of insects. Agricultural University entomology professor Berin Pathrose points out that the state’s warm tropical climate allows harmful insects to breed faster and take advantage of crops year-round. Pathrose develops bio-control methods but says that climate change is adding to the headaches by altering the insects’ ability to adapt, making control methods even more difficult.
Many of the organic treatments are not made widely available and most are expensive. Agricultural officer Asha Raj runs a self-help group for women, many of whom are poor and with little education. Raj invites members of the group and teaches them to make their own biocontrol mixture at her office, which doubles as a plant nursery. The Kerala state government sent Asha Raj to Hyderabad to study biocontrol methods at the national institute of plant health management. And now, she’s passing on that knowledge.
Agricultural Officer Asha Raj leads a group of women creating inexpensive homemade biocontrol agents, used to replace more toxic pesticides.
Helen PalmePRI
Asha Raj says she’s trained dozens of farmers and their organic crops now sell for prices at least 50 percent higher than conventional ones.
Kerala’s agriculture director, Biju Prbakhar, concedes the government might have to subsidize the farmers to help them become totally organic. He says higher prices for safe, nutritious food are a bargain for consumers, because chemical-free produce is the key to improved public health.
“The farmers have to be subsidized,” he says. “Because they are the persons who are producing. The question is whether you’d like to pay more for foodstuffs, or whether you like to pay at least ten times in the hospital for treatment of some of the disease.”
And with 100,000 tons of chemical-free produce a year, Kerala is already halfway towards its ambitious goal — 100 percent organic by 2020.

Cryptocurrency #ICO #Blockchain #TokenSale #agrotechfarm #Token #AI #coin #bonus #platform #bitcoin #ethereum #crypto #currencies #project #ATF #cryptotrading #icoinvest #iconews #technology #agrotechnology #ecology #organicfood #organicindustry #Kerala #Credit #problem #India # job

submitted by AgroTechFarmICO to u/AgroTechFarmICO [link] [comments]

The "fee market" will not compensate the next halving of miner revenue

The next block reward halving, due sometime next year, will suddenly cut the revenue of all miners in half. There have been claims that keeping the block size limit at 1 MB would result in increased fees that would offset that loss.
That will not happen. The total miners' revenue now is about 1 million US$ per day. The fees would have to be ~3 US$ per transaction to compensate a drop by 500'000 $/day. They will never rise that much.
The result of keeping the 1 MB block size limit will be only to drive users away form bitcoin. As the normal traffic approaches the network capacity -- maybe in 6 months time, when it is expected to be 150'000 tx/day -- there will be frequent "traffic jams", when the network receives more transactions per minute than it can confirm, and tens of thousands of unconfirmed transactions will pile up in the queues. During such jams, the average time for the first confirmation will increase from the normal 10-15 min to several hours. Some clients may be able to jump the queue by paying higher fees; but the average waiting time does not depend on the fees, so it will be a zero-sum game -- every time one client jumps the queue and secures space in the next block, some other client will be pushed out to the next block. So, many clients will end up paying more only to wait a lot longer.
The traffic will never exceed the capacity (estimated to be about 180'000-200'000 tx/day), since the average delay would become unbounded in that case (many issued transactions will never get executed). Before that happens, users will get fed up with the increasing delays and the hassle of having to play the stupid, expensive, and frustrating fee auction game; and they will just switch to PayPal and credit cards. Or maybe Litecoin, or Dogecoin...
submitted by jstolfi to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[Table] IAmA: We are Reddit co-Founder Alexis Ohanian, Reddit GM Erik Martin, co-Director Nadeem Mazen, and a gaggle of entrepreneurs. We’re here to talk about Internet freedom and our mini-doc Silicon Prairie: America’s New Internet Economy - AMA!

Verified? (This bot cannot verify AMAs just yet)
Date: 2013-03-20
Link to submission (Has self-text)
Link to my post
Questions Answers
Why does government keep telling us future bills won't have anything to do with internet freedom, but every single time, they do anyway? Thought after the first few, SOPA & PIPA, they told us it'll never happen again.. I think of this phenomenon as a matter of moneyed interests having a bit more bandwidth and consistency when they are trying to jam something through than we do as a more disperse online community. Groups like the Internet Association are beginning to lobby. But basically: politicians are going to revise goals based on what is politically expedient in the moment. At the beginning it may be expedient to join the tide of anti SOPA-PIPA. Then it becomes financially or politically easier to revise that thinking. We just need to be there at every turn with media, examples, arguments, campaign contributions and a whole lot more in order to support the politicians with strong moral and ethical views (and to turn those politicians who are more 'flexible').
So reddit big-shots; What subreddit do you each like and hate the most? Not a reddit big-shot, but thought I'd chime in. /roomporn is an inspiration (and one of my upcoming projects is to make a /roomporn worthy schoolbus interior). I also find myself in /politics a lot, but sometimes it's a little intense.
Like the rainforest that is quickly disappearing, it seems that internet freedom is also on the verge of collapse and that governments and corporations will fundamentally change how the internet will be used and who the internet will be given access to. The internet is the biggest tool we have to seek relevant information outside the conglomerate of media that is controlled by the few, giving us piecemeal of what seems like propaganda, either corporate, government or special interests. We, as the world's citizens need to defend against these erosion of internet freedom. Like the rainforest, we need to take active and monetary responsibility to save internet freedom from destruction and to prevent other future technology from being resigned to this same faith. What role are you as heads of reddit playing to save internet freedom? I definitely encourage you to download a free copy of the film and check out what Ben Huh of Cheezburger Network has to say - his articulation of the issue lines up with yours. And it's a good way to talk about this behemoth: "conservation". I think the issue is that a lot of the govt. infrastructure is broken: easily influenced, low accountability, zero investigative reporting. That pretty much means it's up to us to be 1) more influential (read: half a dozen people calling congresspeople about key issues every single day could make all the difference) 2) holding congresspeople accountable by quantifying their (negative or positive) impact and releasing these studies, 3) investigate (citizen journalism!)
I think the reddit folks do a great job inspiring people along these lines. but it's really up to us to organize. If I had a list of 6 people willing to help organize part time, I'd put tons of time into thinking through this in greater detail. Can I get a "and my axe" from the congregation?
Myspace. Bro, invest in my company it's the myspace of twitter and it's all about, like, foursquare check-ins for your pinterest. We're going to leverage market inefficiencies with first mover advantage, then ROI you hard until you black out!
So guys...what is making the midwest such a premium place for new tech startups? What are the best cities to work in for tech companies and why? I want Erik to chime in here because he has opinions. I was blown away by Cherokee St. in St. Louis. That experience inspired me to bring more art/tech/culture/community building back to Cambridge which is more of a traditional "tech hub" but in a way lacks some of the fast growth, cultural potential, love-of-city, and community cohesion that I saw on Cherokee St.
Hey there awesome people! From what I know about you guys, you're all "stoked about life." You wake up and go to work energized and excited to do what you're doing. Your enthusiasm for what you do is infectious. Most people just don't have that. So my question is, how did you find your individual passions and what would you suggest for those of us who are still searching? Well! This is like my favorite topic. I actually teach a course about this as faculty at School of the Museum of Fine Arts. I have always been a bit anti-deskjob (possibly to my detriment), so I run around finding fun projects, pouring my all into them, and then desperately trying to break even on life/rent/project costs. It's always worked out well. I was able to start [Danger!Awesome laser cutting and 3d printing]( this way with no money and is pretty much the system I rely on to extend /explore the idea of "things I love" and to fund those things. Any specific questions about how I fell into this program/approach?
Found my passion, leaving desk job within the month ;) And I have another project I want to start, but I need to find me some programmers for that one... I think I'll be contacting you at Nimblebot shortly. Would love to talk! Often we find ourselves advising new startups so that they can sustainably find the resources they need (affordably and quickly) rather than relying on us. Always happy to talk.
Sure, i have a question for you. perhaps using danger!awesome as an example, can you go into the actual process of how you managed to create things out of nothing? (e.g. how did you get the money to set up shop or obtain the knowledge necessary for operating your business?) Ok! So for danger!awesome, I really really really wanted some lasercutters, but realized that (at the some) they were like $30-50k each. The only way I was going to afford that was by getting someone to sponsor a cool project. I shopped around dozens of cool projects with explanatory 1-sheets and examples of why marketing companies, art patrons, grant organizations and others might want to fund 3 cutters at 100k (or even 1 cutter at 30k). Ultimately the band OK Go! got together with us to brainstorm a music video using our lasercutting concepts and we eventually brought them the stop motion concept "last leaf". They got samsung on board, we got universal laser on board (to drastically reduce prices) and it seems like everyone got what they wanted. It was a lot of work and a lot of patience. Now, kickstarter is a great way to do something like that because it's easier for 100 duck sized horses to believe in your plan than it is for one horse sized duck to give you funding all at once (and faster too!). As for learning the business, I would say I was clueless at the beginning and then slowly learned from hard knocks and better entrepreneurs. The key for me has always been assuming I am wrong about a given confrontation/problem that crops up and then taking in knowledge through that failure. More questions on this?
Thanks for the reply! That story seems kind of surreal to me but I'm sure its just a result of hustling and making stuff happen. That being said, can you elaborate on some more of the insights you've learned after having started so many projects? What advice would you give to the you from years ago when he first started out? Advice to me years ago: -Don't start a project until you have a clear, concise 1-sheet describing the idea with pretty pictures -Use your 1-sheet to respond to people who like your idea and ask for "just a few more details on top of this great kick off call" which inevitably happens -When people don't get your project/funding/whatever going, they don't hate you or your idea, they are just busy. Or maybe moving in another direction and simply can't help you just yet. Find out which it is. If they're busy, bother them politely at regular intervals. If they are moving in another direction find out what nonmonetary help they can give you, if indeed they are excited about doing so. Or find out how you can help them (presumably you are talking to them because you already admire what they do and want to support it).
We have not seen nearly the amount of protest against the latest internet legislation. I presume a large part of this has to do with people either tired of fighting what seems to be an impossible opponent or there just hasn't been the same magnitude of press fighting against it to rile people up. Is this an inevitable issue that will only be more difficult to overcome with time? Why haven't I seen more discussion of trying to organize another internet blackout? Will it lose the same bite if it happens again and again? Will reddit go through another blackout, maybe for longer this time? Is there a serious effort being put into developing a parallel version of the internet that can gain serious monetary backers? Or is this just a sort of pipe dream that can't effectively be accomplished in the near future? (I forget the name of the subreddit that was discussing building something like this). Is regulation at the CISPA of the internet really a bad thing? I know there was a lot of hype about the loss of net neutrality, but would legislation like that really lead down such a slippery slope as it was hyped to be just a year ago, or is that just hype to rile up support (just like the other side riles up fears about piracy)? This is a matter of sustainability. Those fighting to gain control of the internet (or anything) through lobbying and lawmaking are consistent and well-supported. If we want to have the same bite, we need to organize. The Internet Association is doing some of that work. But there also needs to be a "by the people" version. So basically, the internet has just deputized you to start organizing people more often/more effectively. Let us know if you need help.
Reddit gets billions of page-hits per month, which translates to a lot of eye-balls on critical issues, and sometimes a lot of money put toward some really great causes. We've seen Reddit contribute to curing diseases, building schools and fences, planning rallies and meetings, and sending people on all sorts of adventures, etc, etc,. What we have is social media that actually creates social action. That's pretty damn miraculous. *** Any plans to proactively tap into Reddit as a place for social action/entrepreneurship? I don't just mean posts that make things available, I mean really bake functionality into the website that would make it a platform for the kind of beneficent movements we've seen in the past? Overall - nothing needs to change, Reddit is great, but it has the potential to become even greater. Does anyone see any other meaningful things that can be done to evolve the site and keep it meaningful? I'd be interested on Erik's view on this. As for Nimblebot, we are working on a video layer that makes user-action and user-participation a bit easier. So when you're watching a TED video thinking "That's amazing work, I should really get involved in something like that" you can instead click a button that leads you to a) connects you with the practitioner in the video b) connects you to the resources they want you to have to be effective as an activist or c) initiates some kind of voice call/form email/whatever that you need to fill out in order to, for example, email your congressman. The key here is adding this interactivity without bothering the user as they watch video - a constraint that we've created effective UX around. I can't wait to see existing platforms for communication really "turn the corner" to become platforms for action.
When making a team for an entrepreneurial venture, what features would you recommend looking for in members? Edit: What features would you advise avoidance? Do have: -An agreement and personalities that allow partners to describe feelings at any time (even if they are irrational) with the intention of strengthening the partner bond -I've watched a lot of entrepreneurs in the cambridge community who were proponents of "yeah we all have strong personalities and argue til we're blue in the face, but we do it out of love and we just want the product to be successful" fail pretty hard. There's only so much tough love your company can take and often it just manifests as anger, condescension, and greed. So I say go for a full team of meek people who know what the common goal is over those "win at all costs" people any day. Almost everyone at Nimblebot blames themself when something goes wrong and it's wonderful to be able to tease out the actual root cause of an issue without the added stress of "he said she said" or "I know i'm right on this one so can you just sign those tps reports, thaaanks" -balance: everyone needs to be able to "run fast" for the company, juggle multiple job responsibilities, and still (appear) to be a human out in real life. that's not super easy.
Can the Internet be controlled? With the government working on bills to control the Internet, how possible is that financially, physically, and legally? It can definitely be controlled. The question is will companies with influence over the internet comply with court orders (yes - always yes in America, unfortunately). A brief aside: Under the guise of anti-terrorism, big telecom companies complied with government orders to put huge wiretap operations on their own customers, a surprising fact which was leaked by disaffected high-ups at various companies and then eventually admitted by administration officials under bush. Those enormous monitoring operations are still in place. Wiretapping is obviously illegal - so eventually these officials and companies were retroactively pardoned as an act of congress. That's bonkers to me. There's already so much control over communications networks and law-making in that little part of our history. I fully believe that this bodes poorly for control of internet if we're not careful/diligent as users.
Why do you think there should be internet freedom? Why do you believe it is important? While bills like SOPA/PIPA were not perfect, I think that the idea of freedom of information (which is a component of the movement for a free internet) is inherently at odds with a capitalist economic system constrained by the physical scarcity of resources in the real world. A free internet made sense when it was for education and non-profit. Now that it is primarily used for commercial purposes, it needs to be regulated, and the government has the constitutional justification to do so. Furthermore, governments, and laws, inherently restrict freedoms but often do so in a good and productive way. Many laws are bad laws, but most laws are by and large good laws, and keep our society functioning. How do you propose to reconcile these realities? Often I just hear, oh, lawmakers don't understand how the internet, or technology, works. But as a young, technologically savvy, highly educated individual, who absolutely understands how the internet works, I just can't get on board with that. You appear to be advocating a type of internet libertarianism, and frankly, I think a lot of what goes on on the internet and has become status quo, should be or should have been made illegal a long time ago. Do you have any thoughts on this? I hear you and I do have some thoughts, but do you have specific ideas on what should be regulated or made illegal as a starting point for discussion? Thanks for the comment, curious where this goes!
If people take one thing away from your new mini-doc, what would you want it to be? Wow, great question. I would say that it's three mini-ideas blended into the same theme: a) people think you have to be in a startup hub to get your tech company going, but it's clear that's not the case b)entrepreneurship + community building/economic growth go hand in hand which is huge for smaller cities in America c) if it only takes 6-8 entrepreneurs in a given city to start making a vibrant startup "scene" (see Brad Feld's book "Startup Communities") that means that 100 of us could revitalize the entire country if we just stay focused and connected.
Awesome points Nadeem. Specifically regarding point 2, do you think that, reflecting on your experiences, tech entrepreneurship can be lauded as a new feasible model to drive growth not just in small-town America but for rural villages in developing countries or even low-income nations who have traditionally struggled with growth? I think it's plausible. I really think Brad Feld's Startup Communities is a good read here. It might be built on the American Context, but it ports internationally and into rural settings. The key would be the "events that engage the entire entrepreneurial stack" + getting some "feeder organizations" to pipe resources into some of these communities and most importantly having super great "6-12 core leaders who focus on startup community growth for the long term ==> 20-year view"
Questions for the guys who hosted the bus: Have there been any noticeable changes in your community since the Internet Freedom Bus rolled through? Did it prompt anything? Yeah - I am with Jordan. We weren't on a colonial journey, bringing light into the jungle. We were just telling stories and making new connections. If anything, we were learning/researching and they were lecturing/informing. If anything changed, it's that each of these companies have yet another experience/avenue for disseminating their important work.
Proof? (I keed! I keed!) Internet freedom seems to be taking major hits lately. Politicians don't understand it well enough to legislate it, and the big players are throwing back freedom as fast as they can manage. Note that large volumes of this seem inexorably tied to copyright law. How do you think this tide can be turned? This is right on - and I think the others will have more detailed answers (particularly Alexis, Erik, and Holmes). For me, the key is in connecting communities online and offline and then telling digital video stories that can be easily spread. This film is nothing more than us showing up to show people what is already going on. And when we did, everyone from big companies to congresspeople came back to say "oh wow, there's some good nuggets in there" - suddenly it becomes a bit more clear and a bit more real that internet freedom and economic growth are tied together (and that the internet economy can really be a big deal even in states not typically associated with "tech"). So now that we have the reddit community (and so many others) out there as a champions for Open Internet, and tons of other organizations steeped in these stories daily, how do we make the video stories diverse in content and ubiquitous in number. I am quite confident that once we have the storytelling down, the dissemination and lobbying part is actually comparatively easy.
Would you rather fight 100 duck-sized horses or one horse-sized duck? I don't know why you're getting downvoted, it's a legitimate question. I've put a lot of thought into this one. It's got to be 1 horse-sized duck. I've seen a group of children attacking a tourist in Russia and it's scary as all get out. Basically, tons of small pissed off things will always kill you. Cue any horror movie that has ants consuming flesh, or tons of spiders, or whatever.
I'm going for 1 horse-sized duck and I'm going right for the throat. With my teeth.
Is Congress ever going to stop trying to fuck with the Internet? No. Way. The internet is everywhere and there is a lot of money to be made. When there's money to be made, think tanks and press organizations and lobbyists spin up into action with literally billions of dollars in funding and begin to create legitimate arguments (at various points legislation like CISPA seems attractive, based on "research"). These reports, talking points, and lobbyists are very effective at influencing lawmakers.
The good news is that to counteract this we just need to be organized, informative, and ubiquitous. Bombard these data-hungry representatives and senators from every. possible. angle. Politely (mostly). Heated televised debates and large public protests definitely a good idea.
There are a lot of important "causes" in the world. (Rainforest preservation, feeding the hungry,eyc) I'm obsessed with low-tech/high-impact technologies that can have a big impact on economic growth, education, etc. all over the world. My intiation to this work was through Amy Smith of D-Lab at MIT.
What cause(s) would you fight for if we didn't need to fight for Internet freedom? I'm spending some of my time supporting the social entrepreneurs who help create (and more importantly, make sustainable) worker cooperatives, drip irrigation installation and maintenance, water purification, night-lights (can't eat/can't work/can't read if you can't see!), mobile charging stands, etc.
How do you hope the film will enlighten those who are not tech savvy? More specifically what makes you think you can push start those not in Silicon Valley by means of a movie? Hey great questions! So I think people, even non "tech savvy" people, have a strong feeling that tech happens in the biggest cities. Maybe for some people it's silicon valley. Some people extend that to other coastal cities...But most people don't think of des moines or omaha. And, watching the movie, I don't think you need to be tech-savyy, or even tech-interested, to get excited when you see what ScarlettGarnet or STLStyle or widernet are up to. They are revitilizing their communities, creating brick and mortar shops, and reaching new audiences online - easy.
As for "push starting" those not in silicon valley. I think those not in silicon valley are already push starting themselves and we're just there with a camera. Maybe someone outside of the valley sees this and says "oh yeah that's kind of true - there's entrepreneurs nearby, i need to hook up with that community and get my ideas off the ground". But most likely we're just encouraging people to do the same "connect-make-grow" things they were already up to in these communities. Maybe talking about it more makes it broader, or faster, or both? I think so anyway.
What do you think of the possibilities of ad-hoc mesh networking, rather than depending on large telcos for Internet access? Not an engineer (or not that type of engineer), but I literally dream about this. I actually think that a "own your own data" or "port your own data" social network might have to precede something like that in order to bring "decentralized networks" into the popular consciousness as a useful social tool.
Is there going to be a sequel? Great question! I guess the answer is "Kind of." We're working with Alexis and CEA to make sure that the communities we visited have sustainable video storytelling equipment and training. We want to make it our business that emerging startup hubs keep telling these stories, keep affecting lawmaker policy, and increase connectivity between hubs. We're providing a lot of these services probono and securing the funding for equipment packages and local storytelling/advocacy/activism mentorship in each location. Michael Petricone should chime in on this one!!
Is there such a thing as too much freedom on the internet? Let's ask that question once we reign in control, tracking, illegal wiretapping, price fixing, and a bunch of other stuff. Right now I don't think that is a problem that is really in sight...
I am really impressed with Widernet. Getting knowledge to people that otherwise would not have the access to is changing the world. Sometimes I take for granted all the information just at my fingertips when I access the internet. Allowing a database with eGranary to spread knowledge on a local network in countries that couldn't afford the internet is amazing work. I was wondering if you all know of any example of any type of censoring when these databases are installed in certain countries? I'm hoping it gets there as is. I'll leave this to Cliff or Nick, but just want to say that they're not only an incredible project, they are also incredible people. And insightful on all range of social justice/internet freedom/poverty alleviation topics!
If you could remove one website from existence, what would it be? Pick your mainstream news site. These guys are doing shitty journalism. And it hurts my soul. And every single journalist reporting for these sites has a secret pain. A nagging doubt... "what have I done? what am I part of? can i really do anything to change all this...i've been backed into a corner and there are no paying alternatives anywhere in journalism. someone please help me. please, help me change." But they can't because journalism (and investigative journalism in particular) is on life support. The end.
Well! This is like my favorite topic. I actually teach a course about this as faculty at School of the Museum of Fine Arts. I have always been a bit anti-deskjob (possibly to my detriment), so I run around finding fun projects, pouring my all into them, and then desperately trying to break even on life/rent/project costs. It's always worked out well. I was able to start Danger!Awesome laser cutting and 3d printing this way with no money and is pretty much the system I rely on to extend /explore the idea of "things I love" and to fund those things. Any specific questions about how I fell into this program/approach? Someone gave me reddit gold for this post. I never dreamed it would happen to me (seriously, not joking - even though it seems trivial) and the fact that it was for this comment brings so much joy to my heart. Thank you!
After the safety of the Internet, what is, in your opinion, the biggest problem facing the world? The increasing distance between rich and poor - a root cause of many environmental, legal, and economic problems.
You called yourselves a gaggle... should I be inclined to believe that Reddit is run by geese? 100% geese powered. It's a very green company. Nimblebot takes the refuse and makes artisinal cheeses and cleans feathers, it's where we make our money - film doesn't pay bills, just warms hearts. A symbiotic relationship if ever I saw one.
Now you know. Good to see Charles got off crutches and back into the office!
Hello All! Thanks for taking the time! I'd like to get your opinion concerning the following: Also, I was wondering if you could share your thoughts concerning Danny Hillis' TED talk which was just recently added to the TED collection. Haven't seen Hillis' talk, thank you for the synopsis. Sounds fascinating - and true. In retrospect, things like slash and burn farming, or single-crop farming are so obviously stupid - because often times people knew what they were doing wasn't sustainable. Is that what we are doing here? Likely. Our use of rare earth metals is not sustainable. Our use of network infrastructure is not efficient. I saw a google shirt recently that was a turtle on roller skates...that's what the internet infrastructure is to me: a flaming pile or kluges going at light speed. So...yes, it would be nice to have some social, hardware, or mesh backups of some kind.
If you haven't seen it; Hillis argues that that the internet has become so integrated into our daily routine that we often times don't even realize we are using it (buying gasoline with a credit card, for instance). He warns that too much dependency could lead to disaster in the future if the internet were to suddenly crash and there was no proper backup, or plan b, in place. Thoughts? Ok I will favor the second point here. I think you are right to bring up the first point and agree: there is a huge amount of "primacy" talk and internal contradiction in legislation. Even good legislation. There is certainly no "kantian ontological imperative" talk at play in America's foreign policy, for whatever that is worth.
Whats the best way to educate those that are uninformed on this issue (the elderly, the younger, the uninvolved, etc.)? See some of my thoughts in other comments on the importance of ubiquitous digital video storytelling/storytelling training. If we're all bringing forward polished, articulate, diverse approaches and disseminate this messaging together, we can really do a lot. It only takes a few of us working in tandem to really get something like this going!
Nadeem, this is Jesse... How are you? Awesome that you're doing this AMA. My man! Funny that we have to use the internet to connect. Come by soon :D.
Steve Huffman will be speaking at my college on Friday about entrepreneurship, and founding Reddit and Hipmunk. What questions would you ask him? Would you rather fight 1 alexis sized horse or 100 duck sized alexis'?
What in the fuck is this? That is the worst explanation of socialism ever, and the best part is: SYRIA IS BAATHIST, NOT SOCIALIST. Good job spreading horrible messages. I agree that this explanation of socialism is wrong. But it is the cutest video ever and probably the way that socialism would actually be taught to 5 year olds in an american classroom. Also the video literally says "explain like I'm 5" in the title. So you have to hand it to them for going for "crisis in syria", no?
Do you think bitcoin will flourish? And, with the value going up every single day, are you hoarding your btc or cashing out? I think that for bitcoin to really flourish there needs to be an analogy for the cryptographic underpinnings that lay people can understand. A simple 1 minute animation about how you can take control of the standard of your own money, some of the benefits, but an emphasis on how the heck this thing really works!
Alexis, can you post in /DailyDouble? We're looking for celebrity endorsements and you'll do. You might be rewarded with flair. This is a big opportunity Alexis, you should do it. Things might really take off for you if you can focus up and take advantage of this great offer.
Nadeem, When do you sleep? Is it standing up? Ha! Honestly, I used to just sleep mostly during class in undergrad. Made my nights extremely productive. Now there's no class though - I'm like several years out and I haven't had sleep since like 2006.
Who's your favorite redditor? Besides kn0thing and hueypriest? youvegotapoint. or in real life? trickygonzalez.
Can you, please, delete the Pyongyang subreddit? It is very offensive. You make a very good point. What are you going to do about it?
If you comply with my request I shall allow reddit to remain private when I conquer the country hosting its servers. I will also arrest no more than ten percent of your active users in any given month. Failure to comply...well, we'll cross that bridge when we get there. I like where your head's at. Tell me more about puppet reddit governments: what mods are you liking right now?
The DPRK will liberate the oppressed peoples of the world! The DPRK will be the vanguard to bring you into the brave new socialist world we will create together! Dude, I am psyched about it. Now, don't be coy with me, what's rodman's cabinet position? I know you've got something incredible in store. Don't make me be all house-of-cards-journalist to get this information out of you.
Can we get back to talking about silicon prairie please? I would love that. Please venture a question!
Dammit... Does it have any nudity? Yes, a single frame. Update us when you find it.
Last updated: 2013-03-25 04:29 UTC
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